THE PHILIPPINE PRESIDENTS










THE PHILIPPINE PRESIDENTS
1899-2015


The Inaugurals

The traditional transfer of power

Inaugurals signal the transfer of power from the incumbent President to the President-elect, who is recognized as such upon the proclamation of both Houses of Congress. 

This tradition dates back to the inauguration of President Manuel Roxas—the first transfer of power from an incumbent (President Osmeña) to a president-elect (Roxas), who was his rival for the presidency.

The only Presidents to have attended the inaugurals of their successors were: 
1. Osmeña in 1946. Osmeña attended because it was the first time power was to be transferred from one party to another.
2. Aquino in 1992, to symbolize the first peaceful and constitutional transfer of power since 1969
3. and Ramos in 1998 as part of the centennial celebrations of 1998.



Former President Diosdado Macapagal, assisting his wife (Gloria Macapagal and her brother behind)

[C]ontinuity of government was demonstrated by having a bipartisan committee of [officials] pick up the president-elect in his residence and take him to Malacañan. From there, the incumbent President and the incoming one, along with one member of the committee, board the presidential car for the ride to then-Independence Grandstand where the old and the new part ways. Ninoy Aquino was in the committee which picked up Macapagal at his mother in law’s house on Laura Street, San Juan on December 30, 1961 to escort him to Malacañan to fetch President Garcia for the ride to the Luneta. Ninoy was also among those who fetched Marcos at his Ortega Street residence also in San Juan December 30, 1965 to pick up Macapagal at Malacañan. He rode with Marcos and Macapagal in the car that ultimately took Macapagal to retirement, Marcos to Makiki Heights and him, Ninoy to the tarmac of the airport which now bears his name.



Former President Sergio Osmena (incumbent) and Former President Manuel Roxas (The new President-elect)



President-elect Ramon Magsaysay was invited to try out the presidential chair by President Elpidio Quirino when he arrived to fetch the latter at Malacañan Palace.




President Fidel V. Ramos and President-elect Joseph Ejercito Estrada arrive together at Barasoain Church, June 30, 1998.

Trivia on The Presidents' Oath of Office

The content of the Oath

(In English)
I do solemnly swear [or affirm] that I will faithfully and conscientiously fulfill my duties as President [or Vice-President or Acting President] of the Philippines, preserve and defend its Constitution, execute its laws, do justice to every man, and consecrate myself to the service of the Nation. So help me God.” [In case of affirmation, last sentence will be omitted.]
(In Filipino)
Mataimtim kong pinanunumpaan (o pinatotohanan) na tutuparin ko nang buong katapatan at sigasig ang aking mga tungkulin bilang Pangulo (o Pangalawang Pangulo o Nanunungkulang Pangulo) ng Pilipinas, pangangalagaan at ipagtatanggol ang kanyang Konstitusyon, ipatutupad ang mga batas nito, magiging makatarungan sa bawat tao, at itatalaga ang aking sarili sa paglilingkod sa Bansa. Kasihan nawa ako ng Diyos. [Kapag pagpapatotoo, ang huling pangungusap ay kakaltasin.]

Language used

Aguinaldo took his oath in Spanish. 
Quezon, Osmeña, Roxas, Quirino, Magsaysay, Garcia, Macapagal, Aquino, and Arroyo took their oath in English. 
Laurel, Marcos, Ramos, Estrada took their oath in Filipino, as did President Benigno S. Aquino III.
At the conclusion of the oath of office, a twenty-one gun salute, four ruffles (drum rolls) and flourishes (trumpet blasts), and the playing of “Mabuhay”—the presidential anthem composed by Tirso Cruz Sr. and which has been used since the Quezon administration—take place. 
Swearing on the Bible
From Aguinaldo to Quirino, presidents did not swear on the bible, a legacy of the Revolution of 1896 and the separation of Church and State. 
President Magsaysay was the first president to swear on the bible, in fact using two, one from his father’s and mother’s branch of the family. The bibles were placed on the lectern. 
In 1957, Bohol Governor Juan Pajo held the bible as Carlos P. Garcia, a fellow Boholano, took his oath. President Marcos, in 1969, also swore on two bibles, one from his father, the other a gift from his wife.
According to the Malayas, in their book on inaugurals: “Most presidents took oath with their left hand placed on a Bible. The Constitution provides for either the taking of an oath or making an affirmation in case the president-elect is a non-believer. In case of an affirmation, the line ‘So help me God’ is omitted. The affirmation proviso is in line with the principle of the separation of Church and State as well as the ‘non-establishment of religion’ clause which says ‘no religious test shall be required for the exercise of civil and political rights.’”

Places of Inauguration



Congratulated by U.S. Associate Justice Robert Jackson after he administered the oath of office, August 1, 1944 in Washington D.C., Osmeña was the first Philippine Vice President to assume the presidency upon the death of his predecessor.

The only inauguration held on foreign soil was that of Osmeña (1944) in Washington D.C., following the death of President Manuel L. Quezon.

Four inaugurals have taken place outside Manila: 
1. Barasoain Church in Malolos, Bulacan in 1899 (Aguinaldo) and 1998 (Estrada); 
2. Corregidor Island in 1941 (Quezon); 
3. and Cebu City in 2004 (Arroyo). 
However, both Estrada and Arroyo delivered their inaugural addresses at the Quirino Grandstand.


President Elpidio Quirino at his inaugural in 1949, in the grandstand that would bear his name.

The Quirino Grandstand, previously called Independence Grandstand and renamed after President Elpidio Quirino who first took his oath there, has been the favored inaugural venue for Presidents since 1949. It was originally a replica of the original Independence Grandstand built specifically for the Independence Ceremonies of July 4, 1946, when the separate and self-governing Republic of the Philippines was established.

Seven Presidents have been inaugurated at the Quirino Grandstand: Quirino (1949), Magsaysay (1953), Garcia (1957), Macapagal (1961), Marcos (1965, 1969, 1981), Ramos (1992), and President Benigno S. Aquino III (2010).

Quezon(1935), Laurel (1943), and Roxas (May 1946) were inaugurated on the steps of the Legislative Building in Manila. 

Other inaugurals have been held elsewhere in Manila due to extraordinary circumstances: C. Aquino (1986) in Club Filipino and Marcos (1986) in Maharlika Hall (renamed Kalayaan Hall), and Arroyo (2001 when Estrada was impeached) at EDSA Shrine.


Dates of Inauguration

Starting with Quezon’s second inaugural in 1941 until Marcos’ second inaugural in 1969 (with the exception of the special election called in 1946) presidents were inaugurated on Rizal Day, December 30. Six presidents Quezon (1941), Quirino (1949), Magsaysay, Garcia (1957), Macapagal, Marcos (1965, 1969) had inaugurals on December 30. Presidents Marcos (1981), Ramos (1992), Estrada (1998), Arroyo (2004), and Benigno S. Aquino III (2010) were all inaugurated on June 30.


Ang Panata sa Pagbabago

At the conclusion of the inaugural address of President Benigno S. Aquino III, the public rose to recite the Panata sa Pagbabago. This was an innovation in the 2010 inaugural ceremonies. It was meant to respond to the President’s inaugural address by volunteers and the public at large pledging their support and participation in the democratic governance of the nation. It is likewise thematically aligned with the President’s Social Contract with the Filipino People—his campaign’s guiding principle and the  Sixteen-Point Agenda for Change followed by his administration.
(In Filipino)
Ako ay buong katapatang nanunumpa

Sa ating bansang minamahal at ginagalang
Na aking pagsusumikapang matamo
Ang tunay na pagbabago ng ating bayan
Namamanata ako na tutulong sa ating pamunuan
Sa pagpapataguyod ng marangal na pamamahala
At pagpapalakas ng isang lipunang makatarungan
Na walang palakasan at walang kinikilingan
Na walang lagayan at walang pinapaboran
Gagampanan ko ang lahat ng katungkulan
Ng isang mabuti at matapat na mamamayan
Na kasing tindi ng paghamon ko sa ating mga pinuno
Na sumunod sa landas na tama at matuwid
Upang mabago ang takbo ng kasaysayan
Na magwakas na ang kahirapan
At maitaguyod natin ang ating kabuhayan
Bilang alay sa ating mga anak at salin-lahi ay
Palaganapin natin at itaguyod
Ang isang SAKDAL LINIS, MARANGAL 
at MATAGUMPAY na PILIPINO.
Sa isip, sa salita at sa gawa.


Inaugural Addresses of 

the Presidents of the Philippines


ADMINISTRATION                            

Emilio Aguinaldo                             January 23, 1899                  Barasoain Church, Malolos, Bulacan 

Manuel L. Quezon                          November 15, 1935               Legislative Building, Manila
                                                          December 30, 1941                Corrigidor Island

Jose P. Laurel                                 October 14, 1943                    Legislative Building


Manuel L. Quezon                          November 15, 1943                Shoreham Hotel, Washington                                                                                                                D.C.

Sergio Osmena                                August 10, 1944                     Office of the Resident                                                                                                                       Commisioner, Washington D.C.

Manuel Roxas                                  May 28, 1946                         Legislative Building, Manila

Elpidio Quirino                                 April 17, 1948                         Council of State Room,                                                                                                                        Executive Office Building,                              
                                                                                                                  Malacanan Palace

                                                           December 30, 1949                Independence Grandstand 

Ramon Magsaysay                          December 30, 1953                Independence Grandstand

Carlos P. Garcia                                March 18, 1957                       Council of State Room,                                                                                                                        Executive Office Building
                                                            December 30, 1957                Independence Grandstand 

Diosdado Macapagal                        December 30, 1961                Independence Grandstand


Ferdinand E. Marcos                       December 30, 1965                Independence Grandstand                         
                                                            December 30, 1969                Independence Grandstand

                                                            June 30, 1981                          Independence Grandstand
                                                            February 25, 1986                 Ceremonial Hall, Malacanan                                                                                                                               Palace
    
Corazon C. Aquino                            February 25, 1986                 Club Filipino, San Juan 

Fidel V. Ramos                                  June 30, 1992                         Quirino Grandstand 

Joseph E. Estrada                             June 30, 1998                         Quirino Grandstand

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo                January 20, 2001                  Our Lady of Edsa Shrine,                                                                                                                             Mandaluyong City
                                                             June 30, 2004                        Quirino Grandstand

Benigno C. Aquino, Jr.                      June 30, 2010                         Quirino Grandstand, Manila

                                             
   


The Rituals of  Climbing of the Stairs at Malacanang

The President formally takes possession of the Palace as his official residence and office, by climbing the main stairs of the Palace for the first time as President of the Philippines.  This is a tradition begun by President Quezon, who was moved by the legend that Rizal’s mother climbed the stairs on her knees, to beg for the life of her son. The climbing of the stairs signifies that the chief executive is the freely-elected head of the Filipino people, who is pledged to govern them with justice in contrast to the colonial governors who formerly inhabited the Palace.





Manuel L. Quezon ascends the stairs of Malacañan Palace for the first time as President, 1935.



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"... Hereafter, the Philippines will have a fundamental law, which will unite our people with the other nations by the strongest of solidarities; that is the solidarity of justice, of law, and of right, eternal truths, which are the basis of human dignity...

I congratulate myself also on seeing my constant efforts crowned; efforts which I continued from the time I entered the battlefield with my brave countrymen of Cavite, as did our brothers in other provinces with no arms, but bolos, to secure our liberty and independence...
And finally, I congratulate our beloved people, who from this date will cease to be anonymous and will be able, with legitimate pride, to proclaim to the universe the long coveted name of Philippine Republic... 
... We are no longer insurgents; we are no longer revolutionists; that is to say armed men desirous of destroying and annihilating the enemy. We are from now on Republicans; that is to say, men of law, able to fraternize with all other nations, with mutual respect and affection. There is nothing lacking, therefore, in order for us to be recognized and admitted as a free and independent nation..."

First Republic of the Philippines (Malolos Republic)

Emilio Aguinaldo

January 23, 1899 – March 23, 1901




Profile

Era: First President of the Philippines President of the First Republic
Constitution: 1899 Malolos Constitution
Preceded by: position established
Succeeded by: position abolished
Inauguration:  January 23, 1899, Barasoain Church, Malolos, Bulacan (aged 29)
Capital: Malolos, Bulacan
Vice President: None
Prime Minister: Apolinario Mabini (January 21-May 7, 1899); Pedro Paterno (May 7-November 13, 1899)
Chief Justice: None
Senate President: None
Speaker of the House: None
Previous Positions
ExecutiveLocal: Cabeza de Barangay, Binakayan, KawitProvincial: Capitan Municipal, Kawit National: President of the Revolutionary Government (Tejeros Convention) (March 22, 1897-November 1, 1897) National: President of the Biak-na-Bato Republic (November 2,1897-December 15, 1897) National: Head of the Dictatorial Government (May 24,1898 –June 22, 1898) National: President of the Revolutionary Government (June 23, 1898-January 22, 1899)
LegislativeNone
JudicialNone
OthersGeneral, Philippine Revolutionary ArmyMember, Council of State (Quirino, Roxas, Magsaysay, Garcia, Macapagal administrations)

Personal Details
BornMarch 22, 1869 Kawit, Cavite
DiedFebruary 6, 1964 Veterans Memorial Hospital, Quezon City
Resting PlaceAguinaldo Shrine, Kawit, Cavite
Political PartiesMagdalo faction, Katipunan (1897) National Socialist Party (1935)
SpouseHilaria del Rosario (died 1921); Maria Agoncillo (died 1963)
ChildrenCarmen Aguinaldo Melencio Emilio Aguinaldo, Jr. Maria Aguinaldo Poblete Cristina Aguinaldo Suntay Miguel Aguinaldo
Alma MaterBachelor of Arts, Colegio de San Juan de Letran (college preparatory)
OccupationPolitician

CABINET
Ministry of Agriculture, Industry and Commerce
Leon Ma. GerreroMinisterMay 7, 1899 – November 13, 1899
Jose AlejandrinoMinisterJune 23, 1898 – 1899
Department of Public Instruction
Bernard MosesSecretaryMarch 1900 – December 31, 1902
Aguedo Velarde
Department of Treasury
Hugo IlaganSecretaryMay 9, 1899 – November 13, 1900
Mariano TriasSecretaryJuly 15, 1898 – May 9, 1899
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Apolinario MabiniMinisterOctober 1, 1898 – October 30, 1898
Felipe BuencaminoMinister(Paterno cabinet)
Ministry of Interior
Serevino de las AlasMinisterMay 7, 1899 – November 13, 1899
Teodoro SandicoMinisterJanuary 21, 1899 – May 7, 1899
Ministry of War and Navy
Mariano TríasMinisterMay 7, 1899–November 13, 1899
Emiliano Riego de DiosSecretary of WarMarch– November 1897
Ministry of War and Public Works
Baldomero AguinaldoMinister1898-1899
Ministry of Welfare (Public Instruction, Public Works, Communications, Agriculture, Industry and Commerce)
Gracio GonzagaMinisterJanuary 21, 1899 – May 7, 1899
Department of Public Works and Communications
Maximo PaternoMinister1899







COMMONWEALTH OF THE PHILIPPINES




Manuel L. Quezon

(First President of the Commonwealth)

First term: November 15, 1935-December 30, 1941
Second term: December 30, 1941-August 1, 1944
(term extended on November 15, 1943)











"... Under the Commonwealth, our life may not be one of ease and comfort, but rather of hardship and sacrifice. 
We shall face the problems which lie in our path, sparing neither time nor effort in solving them. We shall build a government that will be just, honest, efficient, and strong so that the foundations of the coming Republic may be firm and enduring—a government, indeed, that must satisfy not only the passing needs of the hour but also the exacting demands of the future.... 


... Even after independence, if we should prove ourselves incapable of protecting life, liberty, and property of nationals and foreigners, we shall be exposed to the danger of intervention by foreign powers...
There can be no progress except under the auspices of peace. Without peace and public order, it will be impossible to promote education, improve the condition of the masses, protect the poor and ignorant against exploitation, and otherwise insure the enjoyment of life, liberty, and property. I appeal, therefore, to every Filipino to give the Government his loyal support so that tranquillity may reign supreme in our beloved land...
... The common man alone can save humanity from disaster. It is our duty to prove to him that under a republican system of government, he can have every opportunity to attain his happiness and that of his family...
...Goodwill towards all nations shall be the golden rule of my administration.  International brotherhood and cooperation are therefore necessary. Amity and friendship, fairness and square deal in our relations with other nations and their citizens or subjects, protection in their legitimate investments and pursuits, in return for their temporary allegiance to our institutions and laws, are the assurances I make on behalf of the new Government to Americans and foreigners who may desire to live, trade, and otherwise associate with us in the Philippines..."



PROFILE

EraSecond President of the Philippines
First President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines
Constitution1935 Constitution
Amended 1935 Constitution
SuccessorSergio Osmeña
InaugurationNovember 15, 1935, Legislative Building, Manila (aged 57)
December 30, 1941, Malinta Tunnel, Corregidor (aged 63)
November 15, 1943, Washington, D.C. (aged 65)
CapitalManila, Philippines (1935-1942)
Shoreham Hotel, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. (1942-1944)
Vice-PresidentSergio Osmeña (November 15, 1935-December 30, 1941; December 30, 1941-August 1, 1944)
Chief JusticeRamon Avanceña (April 1, 1925-December 24, 1941)
Jose Abad Santos (December 24, 1941-May 2, 1942)
Speaker of the National AssemblyGil Montilla (November 25, 1935-December 30, 1938)
Jose Yulo (January 24, 1939-December 30, 1941)
Previous Positions
ExecutiveProvincial: Governor of Tayabas (1906-1907)
Bureaucracy: Provincial fiscal of Mindoro
Bureaucracy: Provincial fiscal of Tayabas
LegislativeLocal: Municipal Councilor of Tayabas, Province of Tayabas (1906)
Lower House: Member and Majority Floor Leader of the First Philippine Assembly; Chairman of the Committee on Appropriations (October 16, 1907-May 20, 1909)
Lower House: Resident Commissioner to the U.S. Congress (November 23, 1909-October 15, 1916)
Upper House: First President of the Philippine Senate (October 16, 1916-November 15, 1935)
Upper House: Senator for the 5th Senatorial District (October 16, 1916-November 15, 1935)
JudicialNone
OthersMajor, Philippine Army (1898-1901)
Personal Details
BornAugust 19, 1878
Baler, Tayabas
DiedAugust 1, 1944
Saranac Lake, New York
Resting PlaceQuezon Memorial Circle, Quezon City
Political PartiesPartido Nacionalista (1907-1921)
Partido Colectivista Liberal (1922)
Partido Nacionalista Consolidado (1923-1933)
Partido Nacionalista-Democrata (1934)
Coalition (Partido Nacionalista Democrata and Partido Pro-Independencia Democrata) (1935-1937)
Nacionalista Party (1937-1944)
ParentsLucio Quezon
Maria Dolores Molina
SpouseAurora Aragon (died 1949)
ChildrenMaria Aurora Quezon
Maria Zenaida Quezon Avanceña
Manuel L. Quezon Jr.
Luisa Corazon Paz Quezon
Alma MaterSecondary education: Colegio de San Juan de Letran (1892)
Bachelor of Arts, Colegio de San Juan de Letran (1894)
Bachelor of Laws, University of Santo Tomas (1903)
OccupationLand Surveyor
Lawyer  (fourth place in the 1903 Bar Exam)

COMMONWEALTH CABINET
Department of Agriculture and CommerceRafael Alunan
Secretary of Agriculture and Commerce
(1941-1942)
Benigno S. AquinoSecretary of Agriculture and Commerce
(1938-1941)
Eulogio Rodriguez
Secretary of Agriculture and Commerce
(1935-1938)
Department of Public InstructionJorge Bocobo
Secretary of Public Instruction
(April 19, 1939-January 22, 1941)
Sergio Osmeña
Secretary of Public Instruction
(November 13, 1935-October 25, 1939)
Department of FinanceSerafin Marabut
Secretary of Finance
(August 21, 1941-December 29, 1941)
Manuel Roxas
Secretary of Finance
(November 26, 1938-August 28, 1941)
Antonio de las Alas
Secretary of Finance
(February 19, 1936-November 15, 1938)
Elpidio Quirino
Secretary of Finance
(July 25, 1934-February 18, 1936)
Department of InteriorSotero Baluyut
Secretary of the Interior
(1938-1941)
Rafael Alunan
Secretary of the Interior
(1938-1940)
Elpidio Quirino
Secretary of the Interior
(1935-1938)
Department of JusticeTeofilo L. Sison
Secretary of Justice
(July 18, 1941-November 27, 1941)
Jose Abad Santos
Secretary of Justice
(December 5, 1938-July 16, 1941)
Jose M. YuloSecretary of Justice
(July 6, 1934-November 1938)
Department of National DefenseTeofilo L. Sison
Secretary of National Defense
(November 1, 1939-July 15, 1941)
Manuel L. Quezon
Concurrent capacity as President
July 16–December 10, 1941
Jorge B. Vargas
Acting Secretary of National Defense
(December 11-December 22, 1941)
Department of Public Works and CommunicationJose Avelino
Secretary of Public Works and  Communication
(1940-1941)
Mariano J. Cuenco
Secretary of Public Works and  Communication
(1936-1939)
Antonio de las Alas
Secretary of Public Works and Communication
(1933-1936)
Secretary to the PresidentJorge B. Vargas
Executive Secretary
(November 15, 1935-December 11, 1941)
Department of LaborSotero Baluyut
Secretary of Labor
(1938-1941)
Jose AvelinoSecretary of Labor
(1935-1938)
Auditor-GeneralJaime Hernandez(November 15, 1935-November 15, 1945)
Commander, United States Armed Forces in the Far East (USAFFE)Field Marshal Douglas MacArthur
(1941-1946)
Chief of Staff of the Philippine ArmyBasilio J. Valdes(January 1, 1939-November 7, 1945)
U.S. High CommissionerFrancis B. Sayre(1939-1942)

WAR CABINET
(December 24, 1941-August 1, 1944)
Department of JusticeJose Abad Santos
Secretary of Justice
(December 24, 1941-May 2, 1942)
Department of Finance, Agriculture, and CommerceAndres Soriano
Secretary of Finance, Agriculture, and Commerce
(March 26, 1942-July 31, 1944)
Department of National Defense, Public Works, Communication, and LaborBasilio J. Valdes
Secretary of National Defense, Public Works, Communication, and Labor
(December 24, 1941-August 1, 1944)
Department of Public Instruction, Health, and Public WelfareSergio Osmeña
Secretary of Public Instruction, Health, and Public Welfare
(December 24, 1941-August 1, 1944)
Secretary to the PresidentArturo Rotor
Secretary to the President
(June 13, 1942-November 31, 1944)
Manuel Roxas
Secretary to the President
(December 24, 1941-March 26, 1942)
Department of Information and Public RelationsCarlos P. Romulo
Secretary of Information and Public Relations
(1943–1944)
Secretary to the CabinetManuel Nieto
Secretary to the Cabinet
(May 19, 1944-August 1, 1944)
Auditor-GeneralJaime Hernandez(November 15, 1935-November 15, 1945)
Resident Commissioner to the U.S. House of RepresentativesJoaquin Elizalde(September 29, 1938-August 9, 1944)
Commander of the United States Armed Forces in the Far East (USAFFE)Field Marshal Douglas MacArthur(1941-1946)
Chief of Staff of the Philippine ArmyBasilio J. ValdesConcurrent capacity as Secretary of National Defense
(January 1, 1939-November 7, 1945)
U.S. High CommissionerFrancis B. Sayre(1939-1942)

ECONOMIC DATA

  • Population: 14.00 million (1936)
  • Population: 17.00 million (1941)
  • Total exports: P295.36 million (1936)
  • Total exports: P 322.26 million (1941)
  • U.S. Direct Investments in the Philippines: US$ 90.7 million (1940)
Source: A.V.H. Hartendorp, History of Industry and Trade of the Philippines (Manila: American Chamber of Commerce of the Philippines Inc., 1958)

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Second Republic of the Philippines



"Hand in hand with national self-sufficiency, we should look after the individual welfare of the poorer elements who constitute the bulk of our population; assure decent living conditions of our laboring class by raising the level of the minimum wage; afford help to the needy and suffering, especially to war widows and orphans...

...Loyalty to duty should be exemplified by our public officers and employees who receive compensation from the State. Simple honesty demands that they earn their pay by rendering the full measure of service that is expected of them. They should observe strict punctuality, maintain maximum efficiency, and devote all their official time to government business. Less than this measure of service is morally tantamount to embezzlement of public funds. Public service, in order to be deserving of popular faith and confidence, must be infused with a new meaning and based on the highest considerations of morality. Government employment is neither a sinecure nor an instrument for self-enrichment, but a noble calling of service to the people. Dishonesty, bribery, and corruption have no place in the government and they shall be eradicated without quarter. Our public functionaries shall be faithful servants of the people-tall, strong men and pure, self-sacrificing women who will safeguard the public interests like vestal fire..

 ...The welfare of the people,” in the fiery language of Andres Bonifacio, “is the supreme purpose of all governments on earth. The people is all; blood, life, wealth, and strength: all is the people.” This is the guiding philosophy of the Constitution and the mandate of those called upon to assist in the establishment of the new government...."


Jose P. Laurel

October 14,1943 - August 17, 1945



PROFILE

EraThird President of the Philippines
President of the SecondRepublic
Constitution1943 Constitution
PredecessorPosition established
SuccessorPosition abolished
InaugurationOctober 14, 1943, Legislative Building, Manila (aged 51)
CapitalManila
Vice PresidentNone
Chief JusticeJose Yulo (February 5, 1942-August 1945)
Speaker of the National AssemblyBenigno S. Aquino Sr. (October 17, 1943-February 2, 1944)
Previous Positions
ExecutiveBureaucracy: Undersecretary, Department of the Interior (1922); Secretary of the Interior (1923)
Cabinet: Commissioner of Justice (1942-1943), Philippine Executive Commission
LegislativeUpper House: Senator of the 5th Senatorial District (Batangas, Mindoro, Tayabas, Cavite, and Marinduque) (1925-1931)
Upper House: Senator (1951-1957)
JudicialAssociate Justice of the Supreme Court (1936-1941)
OthersDelegate, 1934 Constitutional Convention
President, 1943 Preparatory Committee on Philippine Independence
Chairman, 1954 Economic Mission to the United States
Founder, Lyceum of the Philippines
Personal Details
BornMarch 9, 1891
Tanauan, Batangas
DiedNovember 6, 1959
Tanauan, Batangas
Resting PlaceTanauan, Batangas
Political PartiesNacionalista Party (1925-1941)
KALIBAPI (1943-1945)
Nacionalista Party (1945-1959)
ParentsSotero Laurel
Jacoba Garcia
SpousePacencia Hidalgo y Valencia
ChildrenSpeaker of the House Jose B. Laurel Jr.
Ambassador Jose S. Laurel III
Senator Sotero Laurel
Natividad Laurel Guinto
Potenciana Laurel Ypuangco
Mariano Laurel
Vice President Salvador H. Laurel
Arsenio Laurel
Rosenda Laurel Avanceña
Alma MaterBachelor of Laws, University of the Philippines (1915)
Master of Laws, Escuela de Derecho (1919)
Doctor of Civil Laws, Yale University (1920)
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Santo Tomas (1936)
Honoris Causa, Tokyo University (1938)
OccupationLawyer
Professor

PHILIPPINE EXECUTIVE COMMISSION
(January 23, 1942-January 1944)
ChairmanJorge B. Vargas(January 23, 1942-January 1944)
Department of the InteriorBenigno S. Aquino Sr.
Commissioner of the Interior
(January 23, 1942-January 1944)
Department of FinanceAntonio de las Alas
Commissioner of Finance
(January 23, 1942-January 1944)
Department of JusticeJose P. Laurel
Commissioner of Justice
(January 23, 1942-October 14, 1943)
Teofilo L. Sison
Commissioner of Justice
(October 1943-January 1944)
Department of Agriculture and CommerceRafael R. AlunanCommissioner of Agriculture and Commerce
(January 23, 1942-January 1944)
Department of Education, Health, and Public WelfareClaro M. Recto
Commissioner of Education, Health, and Public Welfare
(January 23, 1942-January 1944)
Department of Public Works and CommunicationQuintin M. Paredes
Commissioner of Public Works and Communication
(January 23, 1942-January 1944)

 LAUREL CABINET
            (January 1944-February 1945)
Ministry of Agriculture and Natural ResourcesRafael Alunan
Minister of Agriculture and Natural Resources
(October 14, 1943-March 20, 1945)
Ministry of Economic AffairsJose P. LaurelConcurrent capacity
(January 1944-February 1945)
Ministry of EducationCamilo Osias
Minister of Education
(October 14, 1943-August 17, 1945)
Ministry of FinanceAntonio de las Alas
Minister of Finance
(October 14, 1943-March 20, 1945)
Ministry of Foreign AffairsClaro M. Recto
Minister of Foreign Affairs
(October 14, 1943-March 20, 1945)
Ministry of Health, Labor, and Public WelfareEmiliano Tria Tirona
Minister of Health, Labor, and Public Welfare
(October 14, 1943-March 1, 1945)
Ministry of Home AffairsJose P. Laurel
Concurrent capacity
(January 1944-February 1945)
Ministry of JusticeTeofilo L. SisonMinister of Justice
(October 14, 1943-March 20, 1945)
Ministry of Public Works and CommunicationQuintin Paredes
Minister of Public Works and Communication
(October 14, 1943-March 20, 1945)
Executive SecretaryEmilio Abello
Executive Secretary
Pedro Sabido
Executive Secretary
(December 30, 1943-August 14, 1944)
ECONOMIC DATA

  • Population: 17.9 million (1944)
  • Number of Japanese Civilians in the Philippines: 30,000 (1939)
  • Number of Imperial Japanese infantry troops in the Philippines: 64,000 (1941)
  • Number of Imperial Japanese infantry troops in the Philippines: 268,000 (1945)
  • Total exports: no data (wartime)
Source: A.V.H. Hartendorp, History of Industry and Trade of the Philippines (Manila: American Chamber of Commerce of the Philippines Inc., 1958); National Statistics Office

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___________________________________________________


"... The veterans of our wars for independence, and all those who supported our struggle for freedom, will receive for their labors and sacrifices the full recognition expected of a grateful nation. War widows and orphans will be provided for. Ample compensation will be made for the destruction of public and private properties. Roads and bridges destroyed by the enemy will be rebuilt. Disrupted communications by land, sea, and air will be repaired and improved. Towns and cities, which either were destroyed or suffered damages because of the war will be reconstructed under a systematic and scientific town planning program. In this program, the towns of Bataan and Zambales will receive preferential attention. Bataan, the historic battleground where our brave soldiers, Americans and Filipinos, faced the enemy until death, will be made a national shrine....

"... In the preparation and execution of the Filipino rehabilitation program, America’s support and assistance are essential. But there are responsibilities which we as people must undertake ourselves, and which can be assumed only if we are faithful to our ideals, principles, and commitments."



Sergio Osmeña

(succeeded) August 1, 1944-May 28, 1946


PROFILE

EraFourth President of the Philippines
Second President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines
ConstitutionAmended 1935 Constitution
PredecessorManuel L. Quezon
SuccessorManuel Roxas
InaugurationAugust 1, 1944, Washington, D.C. (aged 67)
CapitalManila
Vice-PresidentNone
Chief JusticeManuel V. Moran (July 9, 1945-March 20, 1951)
Senate PresidentManuel Roxas (July 9, 1945-May 25, 1946)
Speaker of the HouseJose C. Zulueta (June 9-December 20, 1945)
Previous Positions
ExecutiveProvincial: Governor of Cebu (1905-1907)
Bureaucracy: Fiscal of Cebu
Cabinet: Secretary of Public Instruction (November 13, 1935-October 25, 1939)
Cabinet: Secretary of Public Instruction, Health, and Public Welfare (December 24, 1941-August 1, 1944)
National: Vice-President of the Philippines (November 15, 1935-August 1, 1944)
LegislativeLocal: Municipal Councilor
Lower House: Speaker of the Philippine Assembly (1907-1916)
Lower House: Speaker of the House of Representatives (1916-1922)
Upper House: Senate President Pro-Tempore (1922-1933)
Upper House: Senator for the 10th Senatorial District (1922-1935)
JudicialNone
OthersMember, Council of State (Roxas, Quirino, Magsaysay, and Garcia administrations)
Member, National Security Council (Garcia administration)
Personal Details
BornSeptember 9, 1878
CebuCity
DiedOctober 19, 1961
Veterans Memorial Hospital, Quezon City
Resting PlaceManila North Cemetery, Manila
Political PartiesPartido Nacionalista (1907-1921)
Partido Nacionalista-Unipersonalista (1922)
Partido Nacionalista Consolidado (1923-1933)
Partido Nacionalista (“Pro”) (1934)
Nacionalista Coalition (Coalition Party) (1935-1937)
Partido Nacionalista (1937-1945)
Nacionalista Party (1945-1961)
ParentsJuana Suico Osmeña
SpouseEstefania Chiong Veloso (died 1918)
Esperanza Limjap (died 1978)
Children(by Estefania Chiong Veloso)
Vicente Osmeña
Nicasio Osmeña
Milagros Osmeña
Emilio Osmeña
Maria Paloma Osmeña
Teodoro Osmeña
Jose Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña Jr.
(by Esperanza Limjap)
Ramon Osmeña
Rosalinda Osmeña
Victor Osmeña
Alma MaterElementary, University of San Carlos, 1892
Bachelor of Arts, Colegio de San Juan de Letran, 1894
Bachelor of Laws, University of Santo Tomas, 1903
OccupationJournalist
Lawyer (second placer in the 1903 Bar Exam)

WAR CABINET
(August 1, 1944-February 27, 1945)
Department of FinanceJaime Hernandez
Secretary of Finance
(August 9, 1944-November 1, 1944)
Department of National Defense, Public Works, Communication, and LaborBasilio J. Valdes
Secretary of National Defense, Public Works, Communication, and Labor
(August 1, 1944-February 6, 1945)
Department of Information and Public RelationsCarlos P. Romulo
Secretary of Information and Public Relations
Concurrent capacity as Resident Commissioner to the U.S. House of Representatives
(November 2, 1944-February 27, 1945)
Department of Interior and FinanceIsmael Mathay
Secretary of Interior and Finance
(November 1, 1944-February 1945)
Department of Justice, Labor, and WelfareMariano A. Eraña
Secretary of Justice, Labor, and Welfare
(August 8, 1944-July, 1945)
Department of Agriculture and CommerceManuel Nieto
Secretary of Agriculture and Commerce
(August 8, 1944-February 27, 1945)
Secretary to the PresidentArturo Rotor
Secretary of the President
(August 1, 1944-February 27, 1945)
Resident Commissioner to the U.S. House of RepresentativesCarlos P. Romulo
Resident Commissioner to the U.S. House of Representatives
(August 10, 1944-July 4, 1946)
Commission of Budget and FinanceIsmael Mathay
Commissioner of Budget and Finance
(August 9, 1944-November 1, 1944)
Judge Advocate General of the ArmyMariano A. Eraña
(1944-1945)
Economic AdviserUrbano Zafra
(1944-1945)
Military AdviserAlejandro Melchor
(1944-1945)

 RESTORED COMMONWEALTH CABINET
(February 27, 1945-May 28, 1946)
Department of Agriculture and CommerceVicente Singson Encarnacion
Secretary of Agriculture and Commerce
(July 12, 1945-1946)
Department of FinanceJaime Hernandez
Secretary of Finance
(August 9, 1944–November 1, 1944)
Department of Public InstructionFrancisco Benitez
Secretary of Public Instruction
(January 7, 1946–May 27, 1946)
Jose S. Reyes
Secretary of Public Instruction
(May 5, 1945–January 7, 1946)
Maximo Kalaw
Secretary of Public Instruction
(February 27, 1945-May 4, 1945)
Carlos P. Romulo
Secretary of Public Instruction
(October 1944-February 1945)
Department of the InteriorTomas Confesor
Secretary of the Interior
(April 8, 1945-May 28,1946)
Department of Justice, Agriculture, and CommerceDelfin J. Jaranilla
Secretary of Justice, Agriculture, and Commerce
(February 27, 1945-July 12, 1945)
Department of JusticeRamon Quisumbing
Secretary of Justice
(January 2, 1946-May 28, 1946)
Department of LaborMarcelo Aduru
Secretary of Labor
(July 12, 1945-1946)
Department of National DefenseAlfredo Montelibano
Secretary of National Defense
(July 19, 1945-May 27, 1946)
Tomás Cabili
Secretary of National Defense
(February 27, 1945-July 11, 1945)
Department of Public Works and CommunicationSotero Cabahug
Secretary of Public Works and Communication
(1945-1946)
Department of Health and Public WelfareBasilio J. Valdes
Secretary of Health and Public Welfare
(February 27-July 12, 1945)
Jose LocsinSecretary of Health and Public Welfare
(July 12, 1945-May 1946)
Secretary to the PresidentJose S. Reyes
Secretary to the President
(February 27, 1945-May 24, 1946)
Department of Information and Public RelationsCarlos P. Romulo
Concurrent capacity as Resident Commissioner to the U.S. House of Representatives
(1943-1944)
ECONOMIC DATA

  • Population: 19.06 million (1946)
  • Gross Domestic Product: P61,128 million (1946)
  • Income Per Capita: P3,207 (1946)
  • Total Exports: P4,370 (1946)
Source: National Statistics Office



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____________________________________________________


Administration of Manuel Roxas (1946–1948)




First term: May 28, 1946 – July 4, 1946
Second term: July 4, 1946 – April 15, 1948

"...For the Philippines to fit into the pattern of the 20th century, to take its place as an equal among the nations of the earth, we must industrialize; we must make as well as grow. Only in this way can we raise to substantial and permanently high levels the living standards of our people. To support this kind of economy, the producers must become consumers and purchasers. They must have the income with which to buy the products of their toil. Higher wages accompanied by efficient and increased production are the true road to full employment. Increased wages and income in pesos must represent increased purchasing power. Prices must be kept under control until production and importation reach saturation levels. We must avoid a price structure based on scarcity. We must avoid a wage structure based on inflated prices. Meanwhile, we must encourage the production of more and more of our primary requirements, production of things we ourselves will consume. The encouragement of production for consumption and the increase in the purchasing power of the masses are parallel paths which we must travel...."



Manuel Roxas, President from 1946 until 1948.
Elections were held in April 1946, with Manuel Roxas becoming the first president of the independent Republic of the Philippines. The United States ceded its sovereignty over the Philippines on July 4, 1946, as scheduled.
However, the Philippine economy remained highly dependent on United States markets– more dependent, according to United States high commissioner Paul McNutt, than any single U.S. state was dependent on the rest of the country. The Philippine Trade Act, passed as a precondition for receiving war rehabilitation grants from the United States, exacerbated the dependency with provisions further tying the economies of the two countries. A military assistance pact was signed in 1947 granting the United States a 99-year lease on designated military bases in the country.



PROFILE
EraFifth President of the Philippines
Third and last President of the Commonwealth
First President of the Third Republic
ConstitutionAmended 1935 Constitution
PredecessorSergio Osmeña
SuccessorElpidio Quirino
InaugurationMay 28, 1946, Legislative Building, Manila (aged 54)
July 4, 1946, Independence Grandstand, Manila (aged 54)
CapitalManila
Vice-PresidentElpidio Quirino (May 28, 1946-April 17, 1948)
Chief JusticeManuel V. Moran (July 9, 1945-March 20, 1951)
Senate PresidentJose Avelino (May 25, 1946-July 4, 1946; July 5, 1946-February 21, 1949)
Speaker of the HouseEugenio Perez (May 25, 1946-July 4, 1946; July 5, 1946-December 30, 1949)
Previous Positions
ExecutiveProvincial: Governor of Capiz (1919-1921)
Bureaucracy: Chairman, Bigasan ng Bayan (1943-1943)
Cabinet: Secretary of Finance (1938-1941)
Cabinet: Secretary to the President (Executive Secretary) (1941-1942)
National: Chairman, National Economic Council (1938-1941)
LegislativeLocal: Municipal Councilor (1917-1919)
Lower House: Representative of the 1st District of Capiz (1922-1934)
Lower House: Speaker of the House of Representatives (1922-1933)
Lower House: Assemblyman representing the 1st District of Capiz, National Assembly (1935-1938)
Upper House: Senate President (July 9, 1945–May 25, 1946)
Upper House: Senator (July 9, 1945–May 25, 1946)
JudicialSecretary and law clerk to Chief Justice Cayetano Arellano
OthersDelegate, 1935 Constitutional Convention
Member, 1943 Preparatory Commission on Philippine Independence
Military: Brigadier General
Personal Details
BornJanuary 1, 1892
Capiz (now Roxas City), Capiz
DiedApril 15, 1948
Clark Air Base, Pampanga
Resting PlaceManila North Cemetery, Manila
Political PartiesPartido Colectivista Liberal (1922)
Partido Nacionalista Consolidado (1923-1933)
Partido Nacionalista (“Pro”) (1934)
Nacionalista Coalition (Coalition Party) (1935-1937)
Partido Nacionalista (1937-1941)
Nacionalista Party (1945-1946)
Partido Nacionalista-Liberal Wing (1946)
Liberal Party (1946-1948)
ParentsGerardo Roxas Sr.
Rosario Acuña
SpouseTrinidad de Leon
ChildrenSenator Gerardo “Gerry” Roxas
Ruby R. Roxas
Alma MaterManila High School (1909)
Bachelor of Laws, University of the Philippines (1913)
OccupationLawyer
Law professor



CABINET
Department of Agriculture and CommerceMariano GarchitorenaSecretary of Agriculture and Commerce
May 28, 1946-September 1948
Department of Public InstructionManuel V. GallegoSecretary of Public Instruction
May 28, 1946-September 20, 1948
Department of FinanceMiguel Cuaderno
Secretary of Finance
November 23, 1946-January 2, 1949
Elpidio Quirino
Secretary of Finance
September 16, 1946-January 6, 1950
Department of Foreign AffairsElpidio QuirinoSecretary of Foreign Affairs
July 5, 1946–May 1950
Department of HealthAntonio C. VillaramaSecretary of Health
May 28, 1946–April 17, 1948
Department of InteriorJose Zulueta
Secretary of the Interior
May 28, 1946–1948
Department of JusticeRoman Ozaeta
Secretary of Justice
May 29, 1946-September 17, 1948
Department of Labor and EmploymentPedro Magsalin
Secretary of Labor and Employment
May 28, 1946-1948
Department of National DefenseRuperto K. Kangleon
Secretary of National Defense
May 28, 1946-April 17, 1948
Department of Public Works and CommunicationRicardo Nepomuceno
Secretary of Public Work and Communication
May 28, 1946-1949
Social Welfare CommissionAntonio Villarama
Secretary of Social Welfare
1946-1948
Asuncion A. Perez
Commissioner of Social Welfare
October 27, 1946
Chief of the Executive OfficeNicanor Roxas
Chief of the Executive Office
September 10, 1947-February 6, 1948
Emilio Abello
Chief of the Executive Office
May 30, 1946-September 3, 1947
Executive SecretaryEmilio Abello
Executive Secretary
ECONOMIC DATA
  • Population: 19.23 million (1948)
  • Gross Domestic Product: P85,269 million (1947)
  • GDP Growth Rate: 39.5% (1946-1947 average)
  • Income Per Capita: P4,434 (1947)
  • Total Exports: P24,824 million (1947)
Source: National Statistics Office


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_____________________________________________________

Administration of Elpidio Quirino (1948–1953)



First term: April 17, 1948-December 30, 1949 (succeeded)
Second term: December 30,1949-December 30, 1953 (elected)

"... However, I feel it my painful duty to gave stern warning that there shall be no abdication to the authority of the Government and that any defiance of this authority will not be tolerated, but shall be met relentlessly with all the forces at our command."

"... Our Republic can only be worth defending and preserving if it inspires the discipline which establishes a reasonable balance between liberty on one side and security and responsibility on the other.  Our peace at home and our prestige abroad rest on the vigor of those loyalties which stamp us as free men whose self‑interest encompasses the welfare and happiness of our fellows here and beyond our borders...

...Our people should not expect me to do anything but what is right, and I expect everyone to support me to the limit in this resolve.  I shall give constant battle to graft and corruption and will not tolerate irregularities of any sort under whatever name.  Buying one’s way to any political preference, economic advantage, or social distinction will not be allowed.  I want this point understood from the beginning so that individuals and party men who have other ideas and expectations will not be disappointed. Our country and people must believe in me and support me in this resolve,  if I am to achieve any success in this direction...


Former President Elpidio Quirino's statue in Vigan, Ilocos Sur

"...My countrymen, you elected me because you want me to serve the country well.  Help me always to do so.  Give me your light when my way is dark.  Give me strength when you see me weaken. Give me courage always to do the right thing.  Help me build for our people a new reputation for honesty and fair dealing.  Help me establish a new integrity on our thinking, in our words, in our deeds.  Let us be men, as the best of our breed have tried to be.  Let us be true to ourselves so that we cannot be false to any man or any people.  Then we can know the right thing, and I, as your servant,  can do the right thing for all the world to judge...."



Former President Elpidio Quirino during former President Manuel Roxas' wake.




Elpidio Quirino, president from 1948 until 1953.
The Roxas administration granted general amnesty to those who had collaborated with the Japanese in World War II, except for those who had committed violent crimes. Roxas died suddenly of a heart attack in April 1948, and the vice president, Elpidio Quirino, was elevated to the presidency. He ran for president in his own right in 1949, defeating José P. Laurel and winning a four-year term.

World War II had left the Philippines demoralized and severely damaged. The task of reconstruction was complicated by the activities of the Communist-supported Hukbalahap guerrillas (known as "Huks"), who had evolved into a violent resistance force against the new Philippine government. Government policy towards the Huks alternated between gestures of negotiation and harsh suppression. Secretary of Defense Ramon Magsaysay initiated a campaign to defeat the insurgents militarily and at the same time win popular support for the government. The Huk movement had waned in the early 1950s, finally ending with the unconditional surrender of Huk leader Luis Taruc in May 1954.

PROFILE


EraSixth President of the Philippines
Second President of the ThirdRepublic
ConstitutionAmended 1935 Constitution
PredecessorManuel Roxas
SuccessorRamon Magsaysay
InaugurationApril 17, 1948, Malacañan Palace, Manila (aged 57)
December 30, 1949, Independence Grandstand, Manila (aged 58)
CapitalManila
Quezon City
Vice-President:Fernando Lopez (December 30, 1949-December 30, 1953)
Chief JusticeRicardo M. Paras (April 2, 1951-February 17, 1961)
Manuel V. Moran (July 9, 1945-March 20, 1951)
Senate PresidentMariano Jesús Cuenco (February 21, 1949-December 30, 1951)
Quintin Paredes (March 5, 1952-April 17, 1952)
Camilo Osías (April 17, 1952-April 30, 1952; April 17, 1953-April 30, 1953)
Eulogio Rodriguez (April 30, 1952-April 17, 1953; November 30, 1953-December 30, 1953)
Jose Zulueta (April 30, 1953-November 30, 1953)
Speaker of the HouseEugenio Perez (July 5, 1946-December 30, 1953)
Previous Positions
ExecutiveCabinet: Secretary of the Interior (1935-1938)
Cabinet: Secretary of Finance (1934-1936)
Cabinet: Secretary of Foreign Affairs (1946-1950)
National: Vice-President of the Philippines (May 28, 1946-April 17, 1948)
LegislativeLower House: Representative of the First District of Ilocos Sur, Philippine Assembly (1919-1925)
Upper House: Senator (1925-1931)
Upper House: Private secretary to Senate President Manuel Quezon (1916-1935)
JudicialNone
OthersMember, Council of State (Magsaysay administration)
Delegate, 1935 Constitutional Convention
Personal Details
BornNovember 16, 1890
Vigan, Ilocos Sur
DiedFebruary 29, 1956
Novaliches, Quezon City
Resting PlaceManila South Cemetery, Makati City
Political PartiesNacionalista Party (1919-1946)
Liberal Party (1946-1953)
ParentsMariano Quirino
Gregoria Rivera
SpouseAlicia Syquia
ChildrenTomas Quirino
Armando Quirino
Norma Victoria Quirino Delgado
Fe Angela Quirino
Alma MaterBachelor of Laws, University of the Philippines (1915)
OccupationLawyer
Dean, College of Law, Adamson University



CABINET
Department of Agriculture and Natural ResourcesFernando Lopez
Secretary of Agriculture and Natural Resources
December 14, 1950-1953
Placido L. Mapa
Secretary of Agriculture and Natural Resources
September 21, 1948-1950
Department of InstructionManuel Gallego
Secretary of Instruction
May 28, 1946-September 20, 1948
Department of Education, Culture, and SportsCecilio Putong
Secretary of Education, Culture, and Sports
April 18, 1952-January 13, 1954
Teodoro EvangelistaSecretary of Education, Culture, and Sports
May 18, 1951–September 30, 1951
Pablo Lorenzo
Secretary of Education, Culture, and Sports
September 14, 1950-April 3, 1951
Prudencio Langcauon
Secretary of Education, Culture, and Sports
September 21, 1948-September 13, 1950
Department of FinanceAurelio Montinola Sr.
Secretary of Finance
April 18, 1952-December 1953
Pio Pedrosa
Secretary of Finance
January 5, 1949-September 12, 1951
Miguel CuadernoSecretary of Finance
November 23, 1946-January 2, 1949
Department of Foreign AffairsJoaquin M. ElizaldeSecretary of Foreign Affairs
April 18, 1952–December 1953
Carlos P. Romulo
Secretary of Foreign Affairs
May 11, 1950-1951
Felino Neri
Acting Secretary of Foreign Affairs
January 6, 1950-
Elpidio Quirino
Secretary of Foreign Affairs
July 5, 1946–May 1950
Department of HealthJuan S. Salcedo
Secretary of Health
December 14, 1950–November 10, 1953
Antonio C. Villarama
Secretary of Health
April 17, 1948–December 31, 1949
Department of InteriorSotero Baluyut
Secretary of the Interior
September 21, 1948-1951
Department of JusticeRoberto Gianzon
Secretary of Justice
August 17, 1953-December 1953
Oscar Castelo
Secretary of Justice
January 1, 1952-August 16, 1953
Jose P. Bengzon
Secretary of Justice
August 29, 1950-September 23, 1951
Ricardo P. Nepomuceno
Secretary of Justice
July 1, 1949-July 25, 1950
Sabino B. Padilla
Secretary of Justice
September 19, 1948-June 30, 1949
Roman Ozaeta
Secretary of Justice
May 28, 1946-September 17, 1948
Department of Labor and EmploymentJose Figueras
Secretary of Labor and Employment
December 21, 1950-
Primitivo Lovina
Secretary of Labor and Employment
September 21, 1948
Department of National DefenseOscar T. Castelo
Secretary of National Defense
March 1–December 19, 1953
Ramon Magsaysay
Secretary of National Defense
December 14, 1950–February 28, 1953
Ruperto K. Kangleon
Secretary of National Defense
April 17, 1948-August 31, 1950
Department of Public Works and CommunicationSotero Baluyut
Secretary of Public Works and Communication
January 6, 1951-1952
Prospero Sanidad
Secretary of Public Works and Communication
February 21, 1950-1951
Ricardo Nepomuceno
Secretary of Public Works and Communication
May 28, 1946-1949
Department of Public Works, Transportation, and CommunicationPablo Lorenzo
Secretary of Public Works, Transportation, and Communication
May 6, 1952-1953
Department of Social Services and DevelopmentAsuncion A. Perez
Administrator
1950-1953
Executive OfficeMarciano Roque
Executive Secretary
February 2, 1952-December 29, 1953
Teodoro Evangelista
Executive Secretary
September 14, 1948-May 8, 1951
Emilio Abello
Executive Secretary
April 21, 1948-September 16, 1948
Department of Commerce and IndustryOscar Ledesma
Secretary of Commerce and Industry
March 10, 1954-1957
Placido L. Mapa
Secretary of Commerce and Industry
February 12, 1948
Cornelio Balmaceda
Secretary of Commerce and Industry
September 21, 1948-
ECONOMIC DATA
  • Population: 19.23 million (1948)
  • Gross Domestic Product: P99,628 million (1948)
  • Gross Domestic Product: P146,070 million (1953)
  • GDP Growth Rate: 9.43% (1948-1953 average)
  • Income Per Capita: P5,180 (1948)
  • Income Per Capita: P7,596 (1953)
  • Total Exports: P35,821 million (1948)
  • Total Exports: P34,432 million (1953)
Source: National Statistical Coordination Board, National Accounts of the Philippines, National Statistics Office, Philippine Statistical Yearbook


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_____________________________________________


Administration of Ramon Magsaysay (1953–1957)

December 30, 1953-March 17, 1957



“I have been warned that too much is expected of this administration, that our people expect the impossible. For this young and vigorous nation of ours, nothing is really impossible.”
"Those who have less in life, shall have more in law."



President and Mrs. Magsaysay with Eleanor Roosevelt at the Malacañan Palace.
Supported by the United States, Magsaysay was elected president in 1953 on a populist platform. He promised sweeping economic reform, and made progress in land reform by promoting the resettlement of poor people in the Catholic north into traditionally Muslim areas. Though this relieved population pressure in the north, it heightened religious hostilities. Nevertheless, he was extremely popular with the common people, and his death in an airplane crash in March 1957 dealt a serious blow to national morale.

PROFILE


EraSeventh President of the Philippines
Third President of the Third Republic
ConstitutionAmended 1935 Constitution
PredecessorElpidio Quirino
SuccessorCarlos P. Garcia
InaugurationDecember 30, 1953, Independence Grandstand, Manila (aged 46)
CapitalQuezon City
Vice-PresidentCarlos P. Garcia (December 30, 1953-March 17, 1957)
Chief JusticeRicardo M. Paras (April 2, 1951-February 17, 1961)
Senate PresidentEulogio Rodriguez (January 25, 1954-December 30, 1957)
Speaker of the HouseJose B. Laurel Jr. (January 25, 1954-December 30, 1957)
Previous Positions
ExecutiveCabinet: Secretary of National Defense (December 14, 1950-February 28, 1953)
LegislativeLower House: Representative, Lone District of Zambales (1946-1950)
JudicialNone
OthersMilitary: Captain, Philippine Army
Personal Details
BornAugust 31, 1907
Iba, Zambales
DiedMarch 17, 1957
Mount Manunggal, Asturias, Cebu
Resting PlaceManila North Cemetery, Manila
Political PartiesLiberal Party (1946-1953)
Nacionalista Party (1953-1957)
ParentsExequiel Magsaysay
Perfecta del Fierro
SpouseLuz Banzon
ChildrenTeresita Magsaysay Vargas
Milagros Magsaysay Valenzuela
Senator Ramon Magsaysay Jr.
Alma MaterBachelor of Arts in Commerce, Jose Rizal College (1932)
OccupationMechanic
Bus Shop Superintendent
Bus Line Branch Manager

CABINET
Department of Agriculture and Natural ResourcesJuan de G. Rodriguez
Secretary of Agriculture and Natural Resources
(April 12, 1956-August 1960)
Salvador Araneta
Secretary of Agriculture and Natural Resources
(March 10, 1954-1955)
Department of EducationGregorio Hernandez Jr.
Secretary of Education
(July 1, 1954-March 28, 1957)
Pastor Endencia
Secretary of Education
(January 13, 1954-June 30, 1954)
Cecilio Putong
Secretary of Education
(April 18, 1952-January 13, 1954)
Department of FinanceJaime Hernandez
Secretary of Finance
(March 10, 1954-May 27, 1956)
Department of Foreign AffairsCarlos P. Garcia
Secretary of Foreign Affairs
(March 10, 1954-August 1957)
Department of HealthPaulino J. Garcia
Secretary of Health
(March 10, 1954-March 17, 1957)
Presidential Arm on Community DevelopmentRamon Binamira
Chairperson
(January 1956-1961)
Department of JusticePedro T. Tuazon
Secretary of Justice
(March 10, 1954-March 1958)
Department of LaborAngel Castano
Secretary of Labor
(August 22, 1957)
Eleuterio Adevoso
Secretary of Labor
(April 21, 1954)
Department of National DefenseEulogio B. Balao
Secretary of National Defense
(January 3, 1956-March 17, 1957)
Sotero B. Cabahug
Secretary of National Defense
(April 4, 1954-January 2, 1956)
Ramon Magsaysay
Concurrent capacity as President
(January 1-May 14, 1954)
Department of Public Works, Transportation, and CommunicationFlorencio Moreno
Secretary of Public Works, ,Transportation, and Communication
(April 30, 1955-1957)
Vicente Y. Orosa
Secretary of Public Works, ,Transportation, and Communication
(1954-1955)
Department of Commerce and IndustryOscar Ledesma
Secretary of Commerce and Industry
(March 10, 1954-1957)
Executive OfficeFortunato De Leon
Executive Secretary
(April 12, 1956-March 7, 1957)
Fred Ruiz Castro
Executive Secretary
(December 30, 1953-October 26, 1955)
ECONOMIC DATA
  • Population: 21.4 million (1954)
  • Gross Domestic Product: P157,054 million (1954)
  • Gross Domestic Product: P179,739 million (1956)
  • GDP Growth Rate: 7.13% (1954-1956 average)
  • Income Per Capita: P7,339 (1954)
  • Income Per Capita: P8,073 (1956)
  • Total Exports: P36,462 million (1954)
  • Total Exports: P34,727 million (1956)
  • Unemployment Rate: 11.2% (1956)
Source: National Statistical Coordination Board, National Accounts of the Philippines, National Statistics Office, Philippine Statistical Yearbook
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________________________________________________



Administration of Carlos P. Garcia (1957–1961)




First term: March 18, 1957-December 30, 1957 (succeeded)
Second term: December 30, 1957-December 30, 1961 (elected)




"To the common man, especially the needy, the forsaken and the victims of injustice, Malacañang symbolizes hope, faith and justice. Under my administration, Malacañang will remain such a symbol. This Government will carry on dispensing social justice and protecting human rights...
... The Government will continue its low‑cost housing projects and its land redistribution and resettlement program. We shall exert greater efforts so that more of our poor will eventually acquire homes and lands that they can call their very own...."





Carlos P. Garcia, president of thePhilippines from 1957 until 1961.
Carlos P. Garcia succeeded to the presidency after Magsaysay's death, and was elected to a four-year term in the election of November that same year. His administration emphasized the nationalist theme of "Filipino first", arguing that the Filipino people should be given the chances to improve the country's economy. Garcia successfully negotiated for the United States' relinquishment of large military land reservations. However, his administration lost popularity on issues of government corruption as his term advanced.


PROFILE
EraEighth President of the Philippines
Fourth President of the Third Republic
ConstitutionAmended 1935 Constitution
PredecessorRamon Magsaysay
SuccessorDiosdado Macapagal
InaugurationMarch 1, 1957, Malacañan Palace, Manila (aged 61)
December 30, 1957, Independence Grandstand, Manila (aged 62)
CapitalQuezon City
Vice-PresidentDiosdado Macapagal (December 30, 1957-December 30, 1961)
Chief JusticeRicardo M. Paras (April 2, 1951-February 17, 1961)
Senate PresidentEulogio Rodriguez (January 22, 1957-April 5, 1963)
Speaker of the HouseDaniel Z. Romualdez (January 27, 1958-December 30, 1961)
Previous Positions
ExecutiveBureaucracy: Member, Rehabilitation Commission
Provincial: Governor of Bohol (1933-1941)
Cabinet: Secretary of Foreign Affairs (1953-1957)
National: Vice-President of the Philippines (1953-1957)
LegislativeLower House: Representative, Lone District of Bohol (1925-1931)
Upper House: Senator (1945-1953)
JudicialNone
OthersPresident, 1971 Constitutional Convention
Military: Guerilla resistance leader

Personal Details
BornNovember 4, 1896
Talibon, Bohol
DiedJune 14, 1971
Quezon City
Resting PlaceLibingan ng mga Bayani, Taguig City
Political PartiesNacionalista Party
ParentsPolicronio Garcia
Ambrosia Polistico
SpouseLeonila Dimataga
ChildrenLinda Garcia-Ocampos
Alma MaterBachelor of Laws, Philippine Law School (1923)
OccupationLawyer
Teacher

CABINET

Department of Agriculture and Natural ResourcesCesar Fortich
Secretary of Agriculture and Natural Resources
(March 3, 1960-December 1961)
Juan de G. Rodriguez
Secretary of Agriculture and Natural Resources
(April 12, 1956-August 1960)
Department of EducationJose E. Romero
Secretary of Education
(May 18, 1959-September 4, 1962)
Daniel Salcedo
Secretary of Education
(November 18, 1957-December 28, 1959)
Manuel Lim
Secretary of Education
(September 3, 1957-November 17, 1957)
Martin Aguilar Jr.
Secretary of Education
(March 29, 1957-September 2, 1957)
Department of FinanceDominador Aytona
Secretary of Finance
(January 24, 1960-December 29, 1961)
Department of Foreign AffairsFelixberto M. Serrano
Secretary of Foreign Affairs
(August 22, 1957-December 1961)
Carlos P. Garcia
Concurrent Secretary of Foreign Affairs
(March 10, 1954– August 1957)
Department of HealthElpidio Valencia
Secretary of Health
(July 15, 1958-December 31, 1961)
Paulino J. Garcia
Secretary of Health
(March 17, 1957-July 15, 1958)
Department of JusticeAlejo R. Mabanag
Secretary of Justice
(May 18,1959-December 1961)
Enrique Fernandez
Secretary of Justice
(June 1959-July 1959)
Jesus G. Barrera
Secretary of Justice
(April 1958-June 1959)
Pedro T. Tuazon
Secretary of Justice
(March 10, 1954-March 1958)
Department of LaborAngel Castano
Secretary of Labor
(August 22, 1957)
Department of National DefenseAlejo S. Santos
Secretary of National Defense
(May 18, 1959-December 30, 1961)
Jesus M. Vargas
Secretary of National Defense
(August 28, 1957-May 18, 1959)
Eulogio B. Balao
Secretary of National Defense
(March 17, 1957-August 28, 1957)
Department of Public Works, Transportation, and CommunicationFlorencio Moreno
Secretary of Public Works, Transportation, and Communication
(1957-1961)
Department of Commerce and IndustryManuel Lim
Secretary of Commerce and Industry
(January 24, 1960-1962)
Pedro C. Hernaez
Secretary of Commerce and Industry
(April 10, 1959-1960)
Executive OfficeNatalio Castillo
Executive Secretary
(January 24, 1960-September 5, 1961)
Juan Pajo
Executive Secretary
(January 16, 1958-August 28, 1959)
Fortunato De Leon
Executive Secretary
(March 18, 1957-December 30, 1957)
ECONOMIC DATA
  • Population: 22.68 million (1957)
  • Gross Domestic Product: P189,457 million (1957)
  • Gross Domestic Product: P224,430 million (1961)
  • GDP Growth Rate: 4.54% (1957-1961 average)
  • Income Per Capita: P8,353 (1957)
  • Income Per Capita: P7,927 (1961)
  • Total Exports: P35,980 million (1957)
  • Total Exports: P39,845 million (1961)
  • Unemployment Rate: 3.8% (1957)
  • Unemployment Rate: 7.5% (1961)
  • Peso-Dollar Exchange Rate: $1 = P2 (1957)
  • Peso-Dollar Exchange Rate: $1 = P2.64 (1961)
Source: National Statistical Coordination Board, National Accounts of the Philippines, National Statistics Office, Philippine Statistical Yearbook
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________________________________________________________


Administration of Diosdado Macapagal (1961–1965)

December 30, 1961 – December 30, 1965



"The primary function of the President is not to dispense favors but to dispense justice. The presidential oath of office contains the special pledge to “do justice to every man... Our first mission is the solution of the problem of corruption. We assume leadership at a time when our Nation is in the throes of a moral degeneration unprecedented in our national history. Never within the span of human memory has graft permeated every level of government. The solution of this problem shall call for the exercise of the tremendous persuasive power of the Presidency. I shall consider it, therefore, my duty to set a personal example in honesty and uprightness. We must prove that ours is not a Nation of hopeless grafters but a race of good and decent men and women... The basic national problem is the poverty of the masses. Our third mission, therefore, is the creation of conditions that will provide more income for our people – income for those who have none and more income for those whose earnings are inadequate for their elemental needs. Millions of our people are unemployed and millions more are unemployed and millions more are under-employed. We must rectify this situation to help our people attain a higher level of living and create the domestic buying power that can help generate prosperity. Unless solved in time, this problem will worsen to the point of disaster in view of our population explosion.

... The permanent solution to this problem is the rapid and sound utilization of our vast and rich natural resources in order to create opportunities for employment. We believe that the effective accomplishment of this task should be left to the citizens themselves, that is, to private enterprise."


Diosdado Macapagal, president of thePhilippines from 1961 until 1965.
In the presidential elections held on November 14, 1963, Vice President Diosdado Macapagaldefeated re-electionist President Carlos P. Garcia and Emmanuel Pelaez as a Vice President. President Macapagal was the President of the Philippines that changed the independence day of the Philippines from July 4 to June 12.





President Diosdado Macapagal, sharing a light moment with daughter Gloria—who’d then become the fourteenth President of the Philippines, and is now the Representative of the Second District of Pampanga.

Yesterday was the 103rd birth anniversary of Diosdado Macapagal. Learn more about President Macapagal on the PML website.

President Diosdado Macapagal, sharing a light moment with daughter Gloria—who’d then become the fourteenth President of the Philippines, and is now the Representative of the Second District of Pampanga.


PROFILE
  • EraNinth President of the Philippines
    Fifth President of the Third Republic
    ConstitutionAmended 1935 Constitution
    PredecessorCarlos P. Garcia
    SuccessorFerdinand E. Marcos
    InaugurationDecember 30, 1961, Quirino Grandstand, Manila (aged 51)
    CapitalQuezon City
    Vice-PresidentEmmanuel Pelaez (1961-1965)
    Chief JusticeCesar Bengzon (April 28, 1961-May 29, 1966)
    Senate PresidentEulogio Rodriguez (January 22, 1957-April 5, 1963)
    Ferdinand E. Marcos (April 5, 1963-December 30, 1965)
    Speaker of the HouseDaniel Z. Romualdez (January 22, 1962-March 9, 1962)
    Cornelio T. Villareal (March 9, 1962-December 30, 1965)
    Previous Positions
    ExecutiveLegal Assistant (Quezon and Laurel administrations)
    Chief of the Law Division of the Department of Foreign Affairs
    Chief negotiator in the administration-to-administration transfer of the Turtle Islands from the United Kingdom
    Secretary to the Philippine Embassy in Washington, DC
    LegislativeLower House: Representative of the First District of Pampanga (1949-1957)
    JudicialNone
    OthersNone

    Personal Details
    BornSeptember 28, 1910
    Lubao, Pampanga
    DiedApril 21, 1997
    Makati City
    Resting PlaceLibingan ng mga Bayani, Taguig City
    Political PartiesLiberal Party
    ParentsUrbano Macapagal
    Romana Pangan
    SpousePurita de la Rosa
    Evangelina Macaraeg
    Children(by Purita de la Rosa)
    Pampanga Vice-Governor Cielo Macapagal-Salgado
    Arturo Macapagal
    (by Evangelina Macaraeg)
    President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
    Diosdado Macapagal Jr.
    Alma MaterAssociate in Arts, University of the Philippines (1933)
    Bachelor of Laws, University of Santo Tomas (1936)
    Master of Laws, University of Santo Tomas (1941)
    Doctor of Civil Laws, University of Santo Tomas (1947)
    Doctor of Philosophy in Economics, University of Santo Tomas (1957)
    OccupationLawyer

CABINET

Department of Agriculture and Natural ResourcesJose Feliciano
Secretary of Agriculture and Natural Resources
(1963-1965)
Benjamin Gozon
Secretary of Agriculture and Natural Resources
(1962-1963)
Jose Locsin
Secretary of Agriculture and Natural Resources
(1961-1962)
Budget CommissionFaustino Sy-Changco
Commissioner
(February 15, 1960-1965)
Department of EducationAlejandro Roces
Secretary of Education
(December 30, 1961-September 7, 1965)
Jose Tuason
Secretary of Education
(September 5, 1962-December 31, 1962)
Jose E. Romero
Secretary of Education
(May 18, 1959-September 4, 1962)
Department of FinanceRufino G. Hechanova
Secretary of Finance
(January 8, 1964-December 13, 1965)
Rodrigo Perez
Secretary of Finance
(August 1, 1962-January 7, 1964)
Fernando Sison
Secretary of Education
(January 2, 1962-July 31, 1962)
Department of Foreign AffairsMauro B. Mendez
Secretary of Foreign Affairs
(May 1964-December 1965)
Salvador P. Lopez
Secretary of Foreign Affairs
(1963-1964)
Emmanuel Pelaez
Secretary of Foreign Affairs
(December 1961-July 1963)
Department of HealthManuel A. Cuenco
Secretary of Health
(December 13, 1964-December 29, 1965)
Rodolfo T. Canos
Secretary of Health
(May 1, 1964-June 20, 1965)
Floro V. Dabu
Secretary of Health
(July 23, 1965-March 6, 1964)
Francisco Q. Duque Jr.
Secretary of Health
(January 1962-July 22, 1963)
Department of JusticeSalvador L. Marino
Secretary of Justice
(July 1963-December 1965)
Juan R. Liwag
Secretary of Justice
(May 1962-July 1963)
Jose W. Diokno
Secretary of Justice
(January 1962-May 1962)
Department of National DefenseMacario Peralta Jr.
Secretary of National Defense
(December 30, 1961-December 30, 1965)
Department of Public Works, Transportation, and CommunicationsJorge Abad
Secretary of Public Works, Transportation, and Communications
(1964-1965)
Brigido R. Valencia
Secretary of Public Works, Transportation, and Communications
(1962-1963)
Paulino T. Cases
Secretary of Public Works, Transportation, and Communications
(January-May 1962)
Marciano D. Bautista
Secretary of Public Works, Transportation, and Communications
(1961-1962)
ECONOMIC DATA

  • Population: 29.2 million (1962)
  • Gross Domestic Product: P234,428 million (1962)
  • Gross Domestic Product: P273,769 million (1965)
  • GDP Growth Rate: 5.15% (1962-1965 average)
  • Income Per Capita: P8,042 (1962)
  • Income Per Capita: P8,617 (1965)
  • Total Exports: P46,177 million (1962)
  • Total Exports: P66,216 million (1965)
  • Unemployment Rate: 8.00% (1962)
  • Unemployment Rate: 7.2% (1965)
  • Peso-Dollar Exchange Rate: $1 = P.3.80 (1962)
  • Peso-Dollar Exchange Rate: $1 = P3.90 (1965)
Source: National Statistical Coordination Board, National Accounts of the Philippines, National Statistics Office, Philippine Statistical Yearbook


Land Reform Code

The Agricultural Land Reform Code (RA 3844) was a major Philippine land reform law enacted in 1963 under President Diosdado Macapagal.
The code declared that it was State policy
  1. To establish owner-cultivatorship and the economic family-size farm as the basis of Philippine agriculture and, as a consequence, divert landlord capital in agriculture to industrial development;
  2. To achieve a dignified existence for the small farmers free from pernicious institutional restraints and practices;
  3. To create a truly viable social and economic structure in agriculture conducive to greater productivity and higher farm incomes;
  4. To apply all labor laws equally and without discrimination to both industrial and agricultural wage earners;
  5. To provide a more vigorous and systematic land resettlement program and public land distribution; and
  6. To make the small farmers more independent, self-reliant and responsible citizens, and a source of genuine strength in our democratic society.
and, in pursuance of those policies, established the following
  1. An agricultural leasehold system to replace all existing share tenancy systems in agriculture;
  2. A declaration of rights for agricultural labor;
  3. An authority for the acquisition and equitable distribution of agricultural land;
  4. An institution to finance the acquisition and distribution of agricultural land;
  5. A machinery to extend credit and similar assistance to agriculture;
  6. A machinery to provide marketing, management, and other technical services to agriculture;
  7. A unified administration for formulating and implementing projects of land reform;
  8. An expanded program of land capability survey, classification, and registration; and
  9. A judicial system to decide issues arising under this Code and other related laws and regulations.


MAPHILINDO

Maphilindo was a proposed nonpolitical confederation of Malaya, the Philippines, and Indonesia. It was based on concepts developed during the Commonwealth government in the Philippines by Wenceslao Vinzons and by Eduardo L. Martelino in his 1959 book Someday, Malaysia".
In July 1963, President Diosdado Macapagal of the Philippines convened a summit meeting in Manila. Maphilindo was proposed as a realization of José Rizal's dream of bringing together the Malay peoples. However, this was perceived as a tactic on the parts of Jakarta and Manila to delay or prevent the formation of the Federation of Malaysia. The plan failed when Indonesian President Sukarno adopted his plan of Konfrontasi with Malaysia.


President-elect Diosdado Macapagal departs from his residence on Laura Street, San Juan to fetch President Carlos P. Garcia at Malacañan Palace.
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________


THIRD REPUBLIC

Marcos era and martial law (1965–1986)


The leaders of the SEATO nations in front of the Congress Building in Manila, hosted by Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos on October 24, 1966. (L-R:) Prime Minister Nguyen Cao Ky (South Vietnam), Prime Minister Harold Holt (Australia), President Park Chung-hee (South Korea), President Ferdinand Marcos (Philippines), Prime Minister Keith Holyoake (New Zealand), Lt. Gen. Nguyễn Văn Thiệu (South Vietnam), Prime Minister Thanom Kittikachorn (Thailand), President Lyndon B. Johnson (United States)
Macapagal ran for re-election in 1965, but was defeated by his former party-mate, Senate President Ferdinand Marcos, who had switched to the Nacionalista Party. Early in his presidency, Marcos initiated ambitious public works projects and intensified tax collection which brought the country economic prosperity throughout the 1970s. His administration built more roads (including a substantial portion of the Pan-Philippine Highway) than all his predecessors combined, and more schools than any previous administration. Marcos was re-elected president in 1969, becoming the first president of the independent Philippines to achieve a second term.
The Philippine Legislature was corrupt and impotent. Opponents of Marcos blocked the necessary legislation to implement his ambitious plans. Because of this, optimism faded early in his second term and economic growth slowed. Crime and civil disobedience increased. The Communist Party of the Philippines formed the New People's Army. The Moro National Liberation Front continued to fight for an independent Muslim nation in Mindanao. An explosion during the proclamation rally of the senatorial slate of the Liberal Party on August 21, 1971 prompted Marcos to suspend the writ of habeas corpus, which he restored on January 11, 1972 after public protests.

Martial law

Amidst the rising wave of lawlessness and the threat of a Communist insurgency, Marcos declared martial law on September 21, 1972 by virtue of Proclamation No. 1081. Marcos, ruling by decree, curtailed press freedom and other civil liberties, closed down Congress and media establishments, and ordered the arrest of opposition leaders and militant activists, including his staunchest critics senators Benigno Aquino, Jr.Jovito Salonga and Jose Diokno. The declaration of martial law was initially well received, given the social turmoil the Philippines was experiencing. Crime rates plunged dramatically after a curfew was implemented. Many political opponents were forced to go into exile.
constitutional convention, which had been called for in 1970 to replace the colonial 1935 Constitution, continued the work of framing a new constitution after the declaration of martial law. The new constitution went into effect in early 1973, changing the form of government from presidential to parliamentary and allowing Marcos to stay in power beyond 1973.
Marcos claimed that martial law was the prelude to creating a "New Society" based on new social and political values. The economy during the 1970s was robust, with budgetary and trade surpluses. The Gross National Product rose from P55 billion in 1972 to P193 billion in 1980. Tourism rose, contributing to the economy's growth. However, Marcos, his cronies, and his wife, Imelda Romualdez-Marcos, willfully engaged in rampant corruption.


Fourth Republic

Appeasing the Roman Catholic Church, Marcos officially lifted martial law on January 17, 1981. However, he retained much of the government's power for arrest and detention. Corruption and nepotism as well as civil unrest contributed to a serious decline in economic growth and development under Marcos, whose health declined due to lupus.
The political opposition boycotted the 1981 presidential elections, which pitted Marcos against retired general Alejo Santos. Marcos won by a margin of over 16 million votes, which constitutionally allowed him to have another six-year term. Finance Minister Cesar Virata was appointed as Prime Minister by Marcos.

Former Senator Benigno Aquino, Sr. with wife Mrs. Corazon Conjuangco-Aquino

In 1983, opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr. was assassinated at the Manila International Airport upon his return to the Philippines after a long period of exile. This coalesced popular dissatisfaction with Marcos and began a succession of events, including pressure from the United States, that culminated in a snap presidential election in February 1986. The opposition united under Aquino's widow, Corazon Aquino.
The official election canvasser, the Commission on Elections (Comelec), declared Marcos the winner of the election. However, there was a large discrepancy between the Comelec results and that of Namfrel, an accredited poll watcher. The allegedly fraudulent result was rejected by Corazon Aquino and her supporters. International observers, including a U.S. delegation, denounced the official results. General Fidel Ramos and Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile withdrew their support for Marcos. A peaceful civilian-military uprising, now popularly called the People Power Revolution, forced Marcos into exile and installed Corazon Aquino as president on February 25, 1986.
PROFILE

EraTenth President of the Philippines
Sixth and Last President of the Third Republic
First President of the Fourth Republic
ConstitutionAmended 1935 Constitution
1973 Constitution
Amended 1973 Constitution
PredecessorDiosdado Macapagal
SuccessorCorazon C. Aquino
InaugurationDecember 30, 1965, Quirino Grandstand, Manila (aged 48)
December 30, 1969, Quirino Grandstand, Manila (aged 52)
June 30, 1981, Quirino Grandstand, Manila (aged 64)
February 25, 1986, Malacañan Palace, Manila (aged 69)
CapitalQuezon City (1965-1978)
City of Manila (1978-1986)
Vice-PresidentFernando Lopez
(December 30, 1965-December 30, 1969)
(December 30, 1969-September 23, 1972)
Prime MinisterFerdinand E. Marcos (concurrent capacity as President)
(June 12, 1978-June 30, 1981)
Cesar E.A. Virata
(June 30, 1981-February 25, 1986)
Chief JusticeRamon C. Aquino (November 20, 1985-March 6, 1986)
Felix V. Makasiar (July 25, 1985-November 19, 1985)
Enrique M. Fernando (July 2, 1979-July 24, 1985)
Fred Ruiz Castro (January 5, 1976-April 19, 1979)
Querube C. Makalintal (October 21, 1973-December 22, 1975);
Roberto V. Concepcion (June 17, 1966-April 18, 1973);
Cesar Bengzon (April 28, 1961-May 29, 1966)
Senate PresidentGil Puyat (January 26, 1967-September 23, 1972)
Arturo M. Tolentino (January 17, 1966-January 26, 1967)
Speaker of the National AssemblyNicanor E. Yñiguez (July 23, 1984-March 25, 1986)
Querube C. Makalintal (June 12, 1978-June 30, 1984)
Speaker of the HouseCornelio T. Villareal (April 1, 1971-September 23, 1972)
Jose B. Laurel Jr. (February 2, 1967-April 1, 1971)
Cornelio T. Villareal (January 17, 1966-February 2, 1967)
Previous Positions
ExecutiveNone
LegislativeUpper House: Senator (1959-1965)
Lower House: Representative, Second District of Ilocos Norte (1949-1959)
JudicialNone
OthersMilitary: Major (active service); Colonel (reserve)
Personal Details
BornSeptember 11, 1917
Sarrat, Ilocos Norte
DiedSeptember 28, 1989
Honolulu,Hawaii
Resting PlaceIlocos Norte
Political PartiesLiberal Party (1949-1965)
Nacionalista Party (1965-1978)
Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (1978-1986)
ParentsMariano Marcos
Josefa Quetulio Edralin
SpouseImelda Trinidad Romualdez
ChildrenIlocos Governor Maria Imelda Marcos
Senator Ferdinand Marcos Jr.
Irene Marcos-Araneta
Alma MaterAssociate in Arts, University of the Philippines
Bachelor of Laws, University of the Philippines
OccupationLawyer

CABINET
Ministry of Agriculture and FoodSalvador Escudero III
Minister of Agriculture and Food
(1984-1986)
Department of AgricultureFernando Lopez
Secretary of Agriculture
(1965-1971)
Jose Feliciano
Secretary of Agriculture
(1963-1965)
Benjamin Gozon
Secretary of Agriculture
(1962-1963)
Jose Locsin
Secretary of Agriculture
(1961)
Ministry of Budget and ManagementAlberto Romulo
Minister of Budget and Management
(February 26, 1986-March 8, 19987)
Manuel Alba
Minister of Budget and Management
(January 25, 1981-February 28, 1986)
Jaime Laya
Minister of Budget and Management
(June 12, 1978-January 12, 1981)
Ministry of Education, Culture, and SportsJaime Laya
Minister of Education, Culture, and Sports
(January 1984-February 1986)
Onofre Cruz
Minister of Education, Culture, and Sports
(July 1979-1984)
Department of Education, Culture, and SportsJuan Manuel
Secretary of Education, Culture, and Sports
(April 21, 1971-June 1979)
Onofre Corpuz
Acting Secretary of Education, Culture, and Sports
(December 17, 1967-April 20, 1971)
Carlos P. Romulo
Secretary of Education, Culture, and Sports
(December 30, 1965-December 16, 1967)
Ministry of EnergyGeronimo Velasco
Minister of Energy
(1978-1986)
Ministry of Natural ResourcesCarlos G. Dominguez
Minister of Natural Resources
(December 2, 1986-March 9, 1987)
Ernesto M. Maceda
Minister of Natural Resources
(February 26, 1986-December 1, 1986)
Rodolfo P. Del Rosario
Minister of Natural Resources
(July 18, 1984-February 24, 1986)
Teodoro Q. Peña
Minister of Natural Resources
(July 27, 1981-June 30, 1984)
Department of Environment and Natural ResourcesJose J. Leido Jr.
Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources
(May 17, 1974-July 26, 1981)
Ministry of FinanceCesar E.A. Virata
Minister of Finance
(June 30, 1981-March 3, 1986)
Department of FinanceCesar E.A. Virata
Secretary of Finance
(February 9, 1970-June 30, 1981)
Eduardo Romualdez
Secretary of Finance
(January 1, 1996-February 4, 1970)
Rufino G. Hechanova
Secretary of Finance
(January 8, 1964-December 13, 1965)
Rodrigo Perez
Secretary of Finance
(August 1, 1962-January 7, 1964)
Fernando Sison
Secretary of Finance
(January 2, 1962-July 31, 1962)
Ministry of Foreign AffairsCarlos P. Romulo
Minister of Foreign Affairs
(1981-1984)
Department of Foreign AffairsCarlos P. Romulo
Secretary of Foreign Affairs
(1969-1981)
Narciso Ramos
Secretary of Foreign Affairs
(January 1966-December 1968)
Mauro B. Mendez
Secretary of Foreign Affairs
(May 1964-December 1965)
Salvador P. Lopez
Secretary of Foreign Affairs
(1963-1964)
Emmanuel Pelaez
Secretary of Foreign Affairs
(December 30, 1961-July 1963)
Ministry of HealthJesus C. Azurin
Minister of Health
(July 28, 1981-July 1, 1984)
Department of HealthEnrique Garcia
Secretary of Health
(July 24, 1979-June 30, 1981)
Clemente Gatmaitan
Secretary of Health
(January 17, 1973-July 23, 1979)
Amadeo Cruz
Secretary of Health
(August 2, 1968-December 25, 1971)
Paulino Garcia
Secretary of Health
(December 30, 1965-August 1, 1968)
Manuel Cuenco
Secretary of Health
(December 13, 1964-December 29, 1965)
Rodolfo Canos
Secretary of Health
(May 1, 1964-June 20, 1965)
Floro Dabu
Secretary of Health
(July 23, 1965-March 6, 1964)
Francisco Q. Duque Jr.
Secretary of Health
(January 1961-July 22, 1963)
Ministry of Local Government and  Community DevelopmentJose Roño
Minister of Local Government and Community Development
(January 1, 1973-March 31, 1986)
Ministry of JusticeEstelito Mendoza
Minister of Justice
(June 30, 1984-February 27, 1986)
Department of JusticeRicardo Puno
Secretary of Justice
(July 28, 1979-June 30, 1984)
Catalino Macaraig Jr.
Secretary of Justice
(January 17, 1979-July 22, 1979)
Vicente Abad Santos
Secretary of Justice
(August 2, 1970-July 16, 1979)
Felix Makasiar
Secretary of Justice
(February 8, 1970-August 1, 1970)
Juan Ponce Enrile
Secretary of Justice
(December 17, 1968-February 7, 1970)
Claudio Teehankee
Secretary of Justice
(August 3, 1967-December 16, 1968)
Jose Yulo
Secretary of Justice
(January 1, 1966-August 4, 1967)
Salvador I. Marino
Secretary of Justice
(July 9, 1963-December 31, 1965)
Juan R. Liwag
Secretary of Justice
(May 20, 1962-July 7, 1963)
Jose W. Diokno
Secretary of Justice
(January 2, 1962-May 19, 1962)
Ministry of Labor and EmploymentBlas Ople
Minister of Labor and Employment
(1981-1986)
Department of LaborBlas Ople
Secretary of Labor
(1967-1981)
Emilio Espinosa
Secretary of Labor
(1964-1967)
Ministry of National DefenseJuan Ponce Enrile
Minister of National Defense
(June 30, 1981-February 26, 1986)
Department of National DefenseJuan Ponce Enrile
Secretary of National Defense
(January 4, 1972-June 30, 1981)
Ferdinand E. Marcos
Concurrent capacity as President
(August 28, 1971-January 3, 1972)
Juan Ponce Enrile
Secretary of National Defense
(February 9, 1970-August 27, 1971)
Ernesto S. Mata
Secretary of National Defense
(January 21, 1967-February 3, 1970)
Ferdinand E. Marcos
Concurrent capacity as President
(December 31, 1965-January 20, 1967)
Macario Peralta Jr.
Secretary of National Defense
(December 30, 1961-December 30, 1965)
Ministry of Public Works and HighwaysJesus Hipolito
Minister of Public Works and Highways
(1980-1982)
Ministry of Public WorksVicente T. Paterno
Minister of Public Works
(1979-1980)
Ministry of Transportation and CommunicationAlfredo I. Juinio
Minister of Transportation and Communication
(1979-1981)
Ministry of Public Works, Communication, and TrasnportationAlfredo I. Juinio
Minister of Public Works, Communication, and Transportation
(1975-1979)
Ministry of Social Services and DevelopmentSylvia P. Montes
Minister of Social Services and Development
(1981-1986)
Department of Social Services and DevelopmentNathaniel Tablante
Secretary of Social Services and Development
(1977-1978)
Estefania Aldaba-Lim
Secretary of Social Services and Development
(1971-1977)
Department of Social WelfareGregorio Feliciano
Administrator
(1967-1971)
Feliciano T. Remotique
Administrator
(1966-1967)
Ministry of Human SettlementsImelda R. Marcos
Minister of Human Settlements
(1981-1986)
Ministry of TourismJose D. Aspiras
Minister of Tourism
(May 11, 1973-February 25, 1986)
Ministry of Trade and IndustryRoberto V. Ongpin
Minister of Trade and Industry
(1981-1986)
Department of Commerce and IndustryLuis R. Villafuerte Sr.
Secretary of Commerce and Industry
(1979-1981)
Vicente T. Paterno
Secretary of Commerce and Industry
(1974-1979)
Troadio T. Quiazon
Secretary of Commerce and Industry
(1971-1974)
Ernesto M. Maceda
Secretary of Commerce and Industry
(1970-1971)
Leonides Virata
Secretary of Commerce and Industry
(1969-1970)
Marcelo Balatbat
Secretary of Commerce and Industry
(1965-1968)
Presidential Executive AssistantJuan Tuvera
Executive Secretary
(December 30, 1979-February 22, 1986)
Jacobo Calve
Executive Secretary
(December 8, 1975-December 23, 1979)
Executive SecretaryPonciano Mathay
Executive Secretary
(November 7, 1974-December 7, 1975)
Alejandro Melchor Jr.
Executive Secretary
(February 9, 1970-November 4, 1974)
Ernesto M. Maceda
Executive Secretary
(July 26, 1969-February 7, 1970)
Rafael Salas
Executive Secretary
(January 1, 1966-July 24, 1969)
ECONOMIC DATA

  • Population: 33.71 million (1967)
  • Population: 37.90 million (1972)
  • Gross Domestic Product: P285,886 million (1966)
  • Gross Domestic Product: P361,791 million (1971)
  • Gross Domestic Product: P381,497 million (1972)
  • Gross Domestic Product: P571,883 million (1985)
  • GDP Growth Rate: 4.75% (1966-1971 average)
  • GDP Growth Rate: 3.43% (1972-185 average)
  • Income Per Capita: P8,932 (1967)
  • Income Per Capita: P9,546 (1971)
  • Income Per Capita: P9,802 (1972)
  • Income Per Capita: P10,524 (1985)
  • Total Exports: P70,254 million (1966)
  • Total Exports: P63,626 million (1971)
  • Total Exports: P71,572 million (1972)
  • Total Exports: P137,341 million (1985)
  • Unemployment Rate: 7.10% (1966)
  • Unemployment Rate: 5.20% (1971)
  • Unemployment Rate: 6.30% (1972)
  • Unemployment Rate: 12.55% (1985)
  • Peso-Dollar Exchange Rate: $1 = P3.9 (1966)
  • Peso-Dollar Exchange Rate: $1 = P6.44 (1971)
  • Peso-Dollar Exchange Rate: $1 = P6.3 (1972)
  • Peso-Dollar Exchange Rate: $1 = P12.55 (1985)
Source: National Statistical Coordination Board, National Accounts of the Philippines, National Statistics Office, Philippine Statistical Yearbook


Fourth Republic

Administration of Corazon C. Aquino (1986–1992)

February 25, 1986-June 30, 1992
(assumed position due to the EDSA Revolution)


Mount Pinatubo erupted in 1991.
Corazon Aquino immediately formed a revolutionary government to normalize the situation, and provided for a transitional "Freedom Constitution". A new permanent constitution was ratified and enacted in February 1987. The constitution crippled presidential power to declare martial law, proposed the creation of autonomous regions in the Cordilleras and Muslim Mindanao, and restored the presidential form of government and the bicameral Congress. Progress was made in revitalizing democratic institutions and respect for civil liberties, but Aquino's administration was also viewed as weak and fractious, and a return to full political stability and economic development was hampered by several attempted coups staged by disaffected members of the Philippine military.
Economic growth was additionally hampered by a series of natural disasters, including the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo that left 700 dead and 200,000 homeless. During the Aquino presidency, Manila witnessed six unsuccessful coup attempts, the most serious occurring in December 1989.
In 1991, the Philippine Senate rejected a treaty that would have allowed a 10-year extension of the U.S. military bases in the country. The United States turned over Clark Air Base in Pampanga to the government in November, and Subic Bay Naval Base in Zambales in December 1992, ending almost a century of U.S. military presence in the Philippines.




Ninoy believed that only the united strength of the Filipino people would suffice to overturn a tyranny so evil and so well-organized. The brutal murder of Ninoy created that unity in strength that has come to be known as “Lakas ng Bayan”–- people power.
People power shattered the dictatorship, protected those in the military that chose freedom, and today, has established a government dedicated to this protection and meaningful fulfillment of our rights and liberties.
We became exiles, we Filipinos who are at home only in freedom, when Marcos destroyed the Republic fourteen years ago."

PROFILE

EraEleventh President of the Philippines
Second and Last President of the Fourth Republic
First President of the Fifth Republic
ConstitutionAmended 1973 Constitution
1986 Freedom Constitution
1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines
PredecessorFerdinand E. Marcos
SuccessorFidel V. Ramos
InaugurationFebruary 25, 1986, Club Filipino, San Juan (aged 53)
Seat of GovernmentCity of Manila
Vice-PresidentSalvador H. Laurel (1986-1992)
Chief JusticeMarcelo B. Fernan (July 1, 1988-December 6, 1991)
Pedro L. Yap (April 18, 1988-July 1, 1988)
Claudio Teehankee (April 2, 1986-April 18, 1988)
Ramon C. Aquino (November 20, 1985-March 6, 1986)
Senate PresidentJovito Salonga (July 27, 1987-January 1, 1992)
Neptali Gonzales (January 1, 1992-June 30, 1992)
Speaker of the HouseRamon V. Mitra Jr. (July 27, 1987-June 30, 1992)
Previous Positions
ExecutiveNone
LegislativeNone
JudicialNone
OthersNone
Personal Details
BornJanuary 25, 1933
Paniqui, Tarlac
DiedAugust 1, 2009
Resting PlaceManila Memorial Park
Political PartiesUNIDO-PDP-Laban Coalition
ParentsJose Cojuangco
Demetria Sumulong
SpouseBenigno S. Aquino Jr.
ChildrenMaria Elena Aquino Cruz
Aurora Corazon Aquino Abellada
President Benigno S. Aquino III
Victoria Elisa Aquino Dee
Kristina Bernadette Aquino
Alma MaterMajor in French, Minor in Mathematics, College of Mount St. Vincent, Riverdale, New York (1953)
Law School, Far Eastern University (attended one year, 1953)
OccupationHousewife

CABINET
Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR)Benjamin Leong
Secretary of Agrarian Reform
(April 6, 1990-June 30, 1992)
Florencio B. Abad
Secretary of Agrarian Reform
(January 4, 1990-April 5, 1990)
Miriam Santiago
Secretary of Agrarian Reform
(July 20, 1989-January 4, 1990)
Philip Juico
Secretary of Agrarian Reform
(July 23, 1987-July 1, 1989)
Department of Land ReformHeherson Alvarez
Secretary of Land Reform
(May 1, 1986-March 7, 1987)
Department of Budget and Management (DBM)Salvador Enriquez Jr.
Acting Secretary of Budget and Management
(February 12, 1992-December 31, 1993)
Guillermo Carague
Secretary of Budget and Management
(March 13, 1987-February 12, 1992)
Ministry of Budget and ManagementAlberto G. Romulo
Minister of Budget and Management
(February 26, 1986-March 8, 1987)
Department of Education, Culture, and Sports (DECS)Isidro Cariño
Secretary of Education, Culture, and Sports
(January 3, 1990-June 30, 1992)
Lourdes Quisumbing
Secretary of Education, Culture, and Sports
(February 1986-December 1990)
Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR)Fulgencio S. Factoran
Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources
(March 10, 1987-June 30, 1992)
Ministry of Natural ResourcesCarlos G. Dominguez
Minister of Natural Resources
(December 2, 1986-March 9, 1987)
Ernesto M. Maceda
Minister of Natural Resources
(February 26, 1986-December 1, 1986)
Department of Finance (DOF)Jesus Estanislao
Secretary of Finance
(January 1, 1990-June 30, 1992)
Vicente Jayme
Secretary of Finance
(September 15, 1987-December 31, 1989)
Jaime V. Ongpin
Secretary of Finance
(March 26, 1986-September 14, 1987)
Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA)Raul S. Manglapus
Secretary of Foreign Affairs
(October 1987-May 1992)
Salvador H. Laurel
Secretary of Foreign Affairs
(February 1986-September 1987)
Department of Health (DOH)Antonio O. Periquet
Secretary of Health
(February 10, 1992-June 30, 1992)
Alfredo R.A. Bengzon
Secretary of Health
(March 2, 1986-February 7, 1992)
Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG)Cesar N. Sarino
Secretary of the Interior and Local Government
(December 11, 1991-June 30, 1992)
Department of Local GovernmentLuis T. Santos
Secretary of Local Government
(November 9, 1987-December 10, 1991)
Lito Monico C. Lorenzana
Secretary of Local Government
(August 3, 1987-November 8, 1987)
Ministry of Local Government and Community DevelopmentJaime N. Ferrer
Minister of Local Government and Community Development
(December 8, 1986-August 2, 1987)
Aquilino Pimentel Jr.
Minister of Local Government and Community Development
(February 26, 1986-December 7, 1987)
Department of Justice (DOJ)Eduardo G. Montenegro
Secretary of Justice
(February 10, 1992-June 30, 1992)
Silvestre H. Bello III
Secretary of Justice
(July 15, 1991-February 9, 1992)
Franklin M. Drilon
Secretary of Justice
(January 4, 1999-July 14, 1991)
Sedfrey A. Ordoñez
Secretary of Justice
(March 9, 1987-January 2, 1990)
Ministry of JusticeNeptali A. Gonzales
Minister of Justice
(February 28, 1986-March 8, 1987)
Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE)Augusto Sanchez
Secretary of Labor and Employment
(1986-1987)
Ministry of Labor and EmploymentBlas Ople
Minister of Labor and Employment
(1978-1986)
Department of National Defense (DND)Renato S. De Villa
Secretary of National Defense
(July 20, 1991-June 30, 1992)
Fidel V. Ramos
Secretary of National Defense
(January 22, 1988-July 18, 1991)
Rafael M. Ileto
Secretary of National Defense
(November 23, 1986-January 21, 1988)
Juan Ponce Enrile
Secretary of National Defense
(February 26, 1986-November 23, 1986)
Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH)Jose P. De Jesus
Secretary of Public Works and Highways
(1991-1993)
Fiorello EstuarSecretary of Public Works and Highways
(1988-1990)
Juanito FerrerSecretary of Public Works and Highways
(1987-1988)
Vicente R. JaymeSecretary of Public Works and Highways
(1986-1987)
Rogaciano M. MercadoSecretary of Public Works and Highways
(March 1986-November 1986)
Department of Science and Technology (DOST)Ceferino L. Follosco
Secretary of Science and Technology
(April 7, 1989-June 30, 1992)
Antonio V. Arizabal
Secretary of Science and Technology
(June 7, 1986-April 6, 1989)
Department of Social Welfare and Devlopment (DSWD)Mita Pardo de Tavera
Secretary pf Social Welfare and Development
(1986-1992)
Department of Tourism (DOT)Narzalina Z. Lim
Secretary of Tourism
(February 17, 1992-September 10, 1992)
Rafael Alunan III
Secretary of Tourism
(January 9, 1991-February 16, 1992)
Peter Garrucho
Secretary of Tourism
(June 8, 1989-January 8, 1991)
Narzalina Z. Lim
Acting Secretary of Tourism
(April 14, 1989-June 7, 1989)
Jose Antonio Gonzales
Secretary of Tourism
(February 26, 1986-April 14, 1989)
Department of Transortation and Communication (DOTC)Arturo C. Corona
Secretary of Transportation and Communication
(December 20, 1990-May 16, 1991)
Pete Nicomedes Prado
Secretary of Transportation and Communication
(March 23, 1991-July 1, 1992)
Oscar Orbos
Secretary of Transportation and Communication
(January 3, 1990-December 9, 1990)
Rainerio O. Reyes
Secretary of Transportation and Communication
(March 16, 1987-January 3, 1990)
Hernando B. Perez
Secretary of Transportation and Communication
(March 7, 1986-March 16, 1987)
Department of Trade and Industry (DTI)Peter Garrucho
Secretary of Trade and Industry
(1991-1992)
Jose A. Concepcion Jr.
Secretary of Trade and Industry
(1986-1991)
Executive OfficeFranklin Drilon
Executive Secretary
(July 15, 1991-June 30, 1992)
Oscar Orbos
Executive Secretary
(December 16,1990-July 14, 1991)
Catalino Macaraig
Executive Secretary
(September 17, 1987-December 14, 1990)
Joker Arroyo
Executive Secretary
(February 25, 1986-September 15, 1987)
Office of the Press SecretaryHoracio Paredes
Press Secretary
(February 12, 1992-June 30, 1992)
Tomas Gomez III
Press Secretary
(January 4, 1990-February 11, 1992)
Adolfo S. Azcuna
Press Secretary
(June 16, 1986-December 31, 1989)
Teodoro Benigno
Press Secretary
(September 6, 1986-June 14, 1989)
Ministry of Public InformationTeodoro L. Locsin Jr.
Minister of Public Information
(March 25, 1986-September 14, 1987)
ECONOMIC DATA

    • Population: 56.00 million (1986)
    • Gross Domestic Product: P591,423 million (1986)
    • Gross Domestic Product: P716,522 million (1991)
    • GDP Growth Rate: 3.33% (1986-1991 average)
    • Income Per Capita: P10,622 (1986)
    • Income Per Capita: P11,250 (1991)
    • Total Exports: P160,571 million (1986)
    • Total Exports: P231,515 million (1991)
    • Unemployment Rate: 11.83% (1986)
    • Unemployment Rate: 10.58% (1991)
    • Peso-Dollar Exchange Rate: $1 = P20.38 (1986)
    • Peso-Dollar Exchange Rate: $1 = P27.61 (1991)
    Source: National Statistical Coordination Board, National Accounts of the Philippines, National Statistics Office, Philippine Statistical Yearbook

FIFTH REPUBLIC



Administration of Fidel V. Ramos (1992–1998)

June 30, 1992 – June 30, 1998




(In Filipino)


"Kung nais nating matupad ang pangarap ni Rizal – “Karagdagang katarungan at malawak na kalayaan “–sundin natin ang kanyang tagubilin:
Itakwil ang pagkawatak-watak … yakapin ang pagkakaisa … at minsan pa’y buhayin natin ang diwa ng ating bansa.
Tulad ng natanaw ni Rizal, ngayon na ang panahon upang sabihin sa ating sarili–na kung nais nating makaahon, kung nais nating umunlad, dapat tayo’y kumilos sa ating sariling pagsisikap. Sa pagkilos na ito, sabi ni Rizal, “dapat nating ibuhos ang buong liwanag ng ating mga kaisipan at lahat ng tibukin ng ating puso.”

(In English)
"If we are to attain what Rizal wished for his posterity–“More law and greater liberty”–we must do as he prescribed. We must stifle our dissensions and summon once more the spirit of this nation.
As Rizal foresaw, the time has come to tell ourselves that if we wish to be saved, we must redeem ourselves. And in this work of self redemption, we must “expend the whole light of our intellect, and all the fervor of our hearts.”

In the 1992 elections, Defense Secretary Fidel V. Ramos, endorsed by Aquino, won the presidency with just 23.6% of the vote in a field of seven candidates. Early in his administration, Ramos declared "national reconciliation" his highest priority and worked at building a coalition to overcome the divisiveness of the Aquino years. He legalized theCommunist Party and laid the groundwork for talks with communist insurgents, Muslim separatists, and military rebels, attempting to convince them to cease their armed activities against the government. In June 1994, Ramos signed into law a general conditional amnesty covering all rebel groups, and Philippine military and police personnel accused of crimes committed while fighting the insurgents. In October 1995, the government signed an agreement bringing the military insurgency to an end. A peace agreement with the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), a major separatist group fighting for an independent homeland in Mindanao, was signed in 1996, ending the 24-year old struggle. However, an MNLF splinter group, the Moro Islamic Liberation Front continued the armed struggle for an Islamic state. Efforts by Ramos supporters to gain passage of an amendment that would allow him to run for a second term were met with large-scale protests, leading Ramos to declare he would not seek re-election.


PROFILE

EraTwelfth President of the Philippines
Second President of the Fifth Republic
Constitution1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines
PredecessorCorazon C. Aquino
SuccessorJoseph Ejercito Estrada
InaugurationJune 30, 1992, Quirino Grandstand, Manila (aged 64)
CapitalManila
Vice-PresidentJoseph Ejercito Estrada (June 30, 1992-June 30, 1998)
Chief JusticeAndres R. Narvasa (December 8, 1991-November 30, 1998)
Senate PresidentNeptali Gonzales (January 26, 1998-June 30, 1998; August 29, 1995-October 10, 1996; January 1, 1992-January 18, 1993)
Ernesto Maceda (October 10, 1996-January 26, 1998)
Eduardo J. Angara (January 18, 1993-August 29, 1995)
Speaker of the HouseJose de Venecia (July 27, 1992-June 30, 1998)
Previous Positions
ExecutiveCabinet: Secretary of National Defense (1988-1991)
LegislativeNone
JudicialNone
OthersChief of Staff of the Armed Forces
Member of the National Security Council (Estrada, Arroyo, and Aquino administrations)
Member of the Council of State (Arroyo administration)
Senior Adviser (Estrada administration)
Ambassador-at-large (Arroyo administration)
Chairman, Ramos Peace and Development Foundation
Personal Details
BornMarch 18, 1928
Lingayen, Pangasinan
Political PartiesLAKAS-NUCD
National Union of Christian Democrats-United Muslim Democrats of the Philippines
ParentsNarciso Rueca Ramos
Angela Marcos Valdez
SpouseAmelita Jara Martinez
ChildrenAngelita Ramos
Josephine Ramos
Carolina Ramos
Cristina Ramos
Gloria Ramos
Alma MaterU.S. Military Academy, West Point (1950)
MS Civil Engineering, University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana (1951)
Masters in National Security Administration, National Defense College of the Philippines (1969)
Masters in Business Administration, Ateneo de Manila University (1980)
OccupationCivil engineer
Soldier

CABINET
Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR)Ernesto GarilaoSecretary of Agrarian Reform
(June 30, 1992-June 30, 1998)
Department of Agriculture (DA)Salvador Escudero III
Secretary of Agriculture
(February 1, 1996-June 30, 1998)
Roberto SebastianSecretary of Agriculture
(July 1, 1992-January 31, 1996)
Department of Budget and Management (DBM)Emilia Boncodin
Acting Secretary of Budget and Management
(February 1, 1998-June 30, 1998)
Salvador Enriquez Jr.
Acting Secretary of Budget and Management
(January 1, 1994-February 1, 1998)
(February 12, 1992-December 31, 1993)
Department of Education, Culture, and Sports (DECS)Erlinda Pefianco
Secretary of Education, Culture, and Sports
(February 2, 1998-June 30, 1998)
Ricardo T. Gloria
Secretary of Education, Culture, and Sports
(July 7, 1994-December 1997)
Armand Fabella
Secretary of Education, Culture, and Sports
(July 1, 1992-July 6, ,1994)
Office of Energy Affairs
(changed to Department of Energy [DOE])
Francisco L. Viray
Secretary of Energy
(September 20, 1994-June 30, 1998)
Delfin L. Lazaro
Secretary of Energy
(January 12, 1993-September 19, 1994)
Rufino B. Bomasang
Secretary of Energy
(February 7, 1992-January 11, 1993)
Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR)Victor O. Ramos
Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources
(July 1, 1995-June 30, 1998)
Angel C. Alcala
Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources
(September 8, 1992-June 30, 1995)
Department of Finance (DOF)Ramon del Rosario
Secretary of Finance
(July 1, 1992-June 1, 1993)
Ernest C. Leung
Secretary of Finance
(June 2, 1993-January 31, 1994)
Roberto de Ocampo
Secretary of Finance
(Feburary 1, 1994-March 30, 1998)
Salvador Enriquez
Secretary of Finance
(April 1, 1998-June 30, 1998)
Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA)Roberto Romulo
Secretary of Foreign Affairs
(July 1, 1998-April 17, 1995)
Domingo Siazon Jr.
Secretary of Foreign Affairs
(May 1, 1995-January 21, 2001)
Department of Health (DOH)Carmencita N. Reodica
Secretary of Health
(April 8, 1996-June 29, 1998)
Hilarion S. Ramiro Jr.
Secretary of Health
(July 10, 1995-March 22, 1996)
Jaime Galvez Z. Tan
Secretary of Health
(February 1995-July 5, 1995)
Juan M. Flavier
Secretary of Health
(July 1, 1992-January 30, 1995)
Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG)Nelson Collantes
Secretary of the Interior and Local Government
(June 1, 1999-June 30, 1998)
Epimaco A. Velasco
Secretary of the Interior and Local Government
(February 4, 1998-May 30, 1998)
Robert Z. Barbers
Secretary of the Interior and Local Government
(April 16, 1996-February 3, 1998)
Rafael M. Alunan III
Secretary of the Interior and Local Government
(July 1, 1992-April 15, 1996)
Department of Justice (DOJ)Franklin M. Drilon
Secretary of Justice
(July 1, 1992-February 2, 1995)
Demetrio G. Demetria
Secretary of Justice
(February 3, 1995-May 19, 1995)
Teofisto T. Guingona Jr.
Secretary of Justice
(May 20, 1995-January 31, 1998)
Silvestre H. Bello III
Secretary of Justice
(February 1, 1998-June 30, 1998)
Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE)Cresenciano B. Trajano
Secretary of Labor and Employment
(January 26, 1998-June 30, 1998)
Leonardo A. Quisumbing
Secretary of Labor and Employment
(January 16, 1996-January 26, 1998)
Jose S. Brillantes
Acting Secretary of Labor and Employment
(May 8, 1996-January 16, 1998)
Nieves R. Confessor
Secretary of Labor and Employment
(June 30, 1992-June 30, 1995)
Department of National Defense (DND)Fortunato Abat
Secretary of National Defense
(September 16, 1997-June 30, 1998)
Renato S. De Villa
Secretary of National Defense
(June 30, 1992-September 15, 1997)
Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH)Gregorio Vigilar
Secretary of Public Works and Highways
(1993-2001)
Edmundo V. MirActing Secretary of Public Works and Highways
(March 1, 1993-June 1, 1993)
Jose P. De JesusSecretary of Public Works and Highways
(1991-1993)
Department of Science and Technology (DOST)William Padolina
Secretary of Science and Technology
(May 21, 1995-January 29, 1999)
William Padolina
Acting Secretary of Science and Technology
(July 7, 1994-May 20, 1995)
Ricardo T. Gloria
Secretary of Science and Technology
(July 1, 1993-July 6, 1994)
Ricardo T. Gloria
Acting Secretary of Science and Technology
(July 1, 1992-June 30, 1993)
Department of Social Welfare and Devlopment (DSWD)Lilian Laigo
Secretary of Social Welfare and Development
(1996-1998)
Lilian Laigo
Acting Secretary of Social Welfare and Development
(1995-1996)
Corazon Alma C. de Leon
Secretary of Social Welfare and Development
(July 1992-June 1994)
Department of Tourism (DOT)Guillerma T. Gabor
Secretary of Tourism
(April 8, 1996-June 30, 1998)
Evelyn T. Pantig
Acting Secretary of Tourism
(March 29, 1996-April 7, 1996)
Eduardo P. Pilapil
Secretary of Tourism
(July 4, 1995-March 1996)
Vicente Carlos
Secretary of Tourism
(September 11, 1992-July 3, 1995)
Narzalina Z. Lim
Secretary of Tourism
(February 17, 1992-September 10, 1992)
Department of Transortation and Communication (DOTC)Josefina T. Lichauco
Acting Secretary of Transportation and Communication
(January 15, 1998-June 30, 1998)
Arturo T. Enrile
Secretary of Transportation and Communication
(April 16, 1997-January 14, 1998)
Amado S. Lagdameo Jr.
Secretary of Transportation and Communication
(April 1, 1996-April 16, 1997)
Jesus B. Garcia
Secretary of Transportation and Communication
(July 1, 1992-April 1, 1996)
Department of Trade and Industry (DTI)Cesar B. Bautista
Secretary of Trade and Industry
(1996-1998)
Rizalino S. Navarro
Secretary of Trade and Industry
(1992-1996)
National Economic Development Authority (NEDA)Cielito Habito
Secretary of Socioeconomic Planning
(July 1, 1992-June 30, 1998)
Office of the National Security AdviserJose T. Almonte
Presidential Security Adviser and Director-General
(July 1, 1992-June 30, 1998)
Office of the Press SecretaryHector R.R. Villanueva
Press Secretary
(June 21, 1995-June 29, 1998)
Jesus C. Sison
Press Secretary
(May 11, 1993-June 20, 1995)
Rodolfo T. Reyes
Press Secretary
(July 1, 1992-May 10, 1993)
Commission on Higher Education (CHED)Angel Alcala
Chairperson of the Commission on Higher Education
(July 1, 1995-July 4, 1999)
Ricardo T. Gloria
Chairperson of the Commission on Higher Education
(May 18, 1994-June 30, 1995)
Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA)Prospero Oreta
Chairperson of the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority
(May 1994-1998)
Metro Manila AuthorityIsmael Mathay Jr.
Chairperson of the Metro Manila Authority
(1992-1994)
Office of the Presidential Adviser on the Peace ProcessManuel T. Yan
Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process
(1994-1998)
Oscar F. Santos
Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process
(August 20, 1993-March 22, 1994)
Haydee Yorac
Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process
(July 1, 1992-August 19, 1993)
ECONOMIC DATA
  • Population: 63.82 million (1992)
  • Gross Domestic Product: P718,941 million (1992)
  • Gross Domestic Product: P893,151 million (1997)
  • GDP Growth Rate: 4.9% (1992-1998 average)
  • Income Per Capita: P11,265 (1992)
  • Income Per Capita: P12,147 (1997)
  • Total Exports: US$9,824 million (1992)
  • Total Exports: US$25,228 million (1997)
  • Unemployment Rate: 9.78% (1992)
  • Unemployment Rate: 8.7% (1997)
  • Peso-Dollar Exchange Rate: $1 = P25.51 (1992)
  • Peso-Dollar Exchange Rate: $1 = P29.47 (1997)
Source: Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas
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Administration of Joseph Estrada (1998–2001)

June 30, 1998-January 20, 2001




"... Walang dahilan upang lumaganap ang krimen sa ating lipunan; mangyayari lang ito kung ang gobyerno mismo ay kumukupkop sa mga kriminal. Walang organisasyon o gawaing kriminal na kayang lumaban sa pamahalaan, kung ang pamahalaan ay tapat sa pagnanasang durugin ang mga kriminalidad.

We know that the major crimes in this country are commited by hoodlums in uniforms. We know they are protected by hoodlums in robes. We know that the most damaging crimes against society are not those of petty thieves in rags, but those of economic saboteurs in business suits: the dishonest stockbrockers, the wheeling- dealing businessman, influence-peddlers, price-padders and other crooks in government.
Ipinangangako ko ngayon: gagamitin natin ang buong kapangyarihan ng pamahalaan upang labanan ang krimen – maliit man o malaki. Walang makakalusot. Itatangi. I will use all the powers of government to stamp out crime, big and small.
There will be no excuses, and there will be no exceptions. I have sent friends to jail before, I can send them again.
No government is so powerless that it cannot protect its citizens, especially when they are victimized by government agents.
No government is so helpless that it cannot prosecute criminals, especially when the officials are criminals operating in the open.
Hindi makatarungan na sa isang bansang karamihan ay nagugutom at walang hanapbuhay, ang kaban ng bayan ay winawaldas at ninanakaw. At ang likas na yaman ay pinaghahati-hatian ng malalakas sa gobyerno.
So let me tell you today. There are things that a government, even in the worst economic conditions, can do.
This government will do those things.
Kaya nating sugpuin ang lumalaganap na krimen. Ginawa ko at magagawa ko noong ako ay namuno ng Presidential Anti – Crime Commission. Gagawin ko ngayon ang lahat, ngayon na Pangulo na ako. At walang sinumang makakapigil sa akin.
Kaya pa rin ng pamahalaan ang magbigay ng mahahalagang serbisyo: mga lansangan, mga paaralan, mga health centers, sapat na bilang ng mga pulis at sandatahang lakas na sadyang katahimikan ang likha at alaga.
Magagawa ng gobyerno ang lahat ng ito, huwag lamang haluan ng nakawan at pork barrel.
Hindi mapapakain ng pamunuan ang lahat ng mga nagugutom sa ating bansa sa kasalukuyan. Pero uusigin natin ang sinumang kukupit sa pondo na nakalaan sa pagbili ng pagkain.
Hindi kaya ng gobyerno na pagbigyan ang lahat ng mga lugar na nangangailangan ng kalsadang konkreto at aspaltado. Pero hindi natin palalampasin ang sinumang magnanakaw ng perang nakalaan sa paglikha ng mga tulay at kalsada.
Hindi kaya agad ng pamahalaan na pabalikin ang milyun-milyong Overseas Contract Workers, at bigyan sila ng hanapbuhay sa ating bayan. Dama natin ang kalungkutan at sakit ng paghihiwalay sa kanilang mahal sa buhay. Subalit makakaasa sila na hindi natin pababayaan ang kanilang mga pamilya at mga anak. At lalong hindi natin kaliligtaan ang mga kapakanan nila sa ibang bansa.
Hindi kayang bigyan ng sapat na edukasyon ang lahat ng mga kabataang Pilipino sa ngayon, tulad nang itinadhana sa Saligang Batas.  Pero hindi natin palalampasin ang sinumang nagwawaldas sa pondong nakalaan sa mga libro at paaralan...."
I appeal to the coming Congress to search its conscience for a way to stand behind me, rather than against me, on the pork barrel issue. I appeal to every legislator: let us find a way to convert pork into tuition subsidies in both public and private schools. Let us use it to the better lives of our people, rather than to improve our chances of re – election.
There are crimes that I will make my personal apostolate to punish:
-low crimes in the streets, by rich and poor alike;
-high crimes in Ayala Avenue and Binondo;
-graft and corruption throughout the government, whether in the executive, the legislative, or the judiciary.
Ngayon pa lamang, ang mga kamag-anak ko ay nilalapitan na ng kung sinu-sino. Kung anu-anong deal at kickback ang ipinapangako.
Binabalaan ko sila. Walang kaibigan, walang kumpare, walang kamag-anak o anak na maaaring magsamantala sa ngayon. At ngayon pa lamang sinasabi ko sa inyo, nag-aaksaya lamang kayo ng panahon. Huwag ninyo akong subukan.
Nais kong isipin ng bawa’t Pilipino, mahirap man o mayaman, na ang pinakaligtas na lugar sa buong mundo, ay ang kanyang lupang tinubuan.
(I want every Filipino, rich or poor alike, to feel that the safest place in the world for him is his own country.)"
Joseph Estrada, a former movie actor who had served as Ramos' vice president, was elected president by a landslide victory in 1998. His election campaign pledged to help the poor and develop the country's agricultural sector. He enjoyed widespread popularity, particularly among the poor. Estrada assumed office amid the Asian Financial Crisis. The economy did, however, recover from a low −0.6% growth in 1998 to a moderate growth of 3.4% by 1999. Like his predecessor there was a similar attempt to change the 1987 constitution. The process is termed as CONCORD or Constitutional Correction for Development. Unlike Charter change under Ramos and Arroyo the CONCORD proposal, according to its proponents, would only amend the 'restrictive' economic provisions of the constitution that is considered as impeding the entry of more foreign investments in the Philippines. However it was not successful in amending the constitution.
On March 21, 2000 President Estrada declared an "all-out-war" against the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) after the worsening secessionist movement in Midanao The government later captured 46 MILF camps including the MILF's headquarters', Camp Abubakar. In October 2000, however, Estrada was accused of having accepted millions of pesos in payoffs from illegal gambling businesses. He was impeached by the House of Representatives, but his impeachment trial in the Senate broke down when the senate voted to block examination of the president's bank records. In response, massive street protests erupted demanding Estrada's resignation. Faced with street protests, cabinet resignations, and a withdrawal of support from the armed forces, Estrada was forced from office on January 20, 2001.
PROFILE

EraThirteenth President of the Philippines
Third President of the Fifth Republic
Constitution1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines
PredecessorFidel V. Ramos
SuccessorGloria Macapagal-Arroyo
InaugurationJune 30, 1998, Barasoain Church, Malolos, Bulacan (aged 61)
CapitalManila
Vice-PresidentGloria Macapagal-Arroyo (June 30, 1998-January 20, 2001)
Chief Justice:Hilario G. Davide (November 30, 1998-December 20, 2005)
Andres R. Narvasa (December 8, 1991-November 30, 1998)
Senate PresidentAquilino Pimentel (November 13, 2000-June 30, 2001)
Franklin M. Drilon (July 12, 2000-November 13, 2000)
Blas Ople (June 29, 1999-July 12, 2000)
Marcelo H. Fernan (July 27, 1998-June 28, 1999)
Speaker of the HouseArnulfo T. Fuentabella (November 13, 2000-January 24, 2001)
Manuel Villar (July 27, 1998-November 13, 2000)
Previous Positions
ExecutiveLocal: Mayor, Municipality of San Juan (1969-1986)
Cabinet: Chairman, Presidential Anti Crime Commission (1992-1997)
National: Vice President of the Philippines (1992-1998)
LegislativeUpper House: Senator (1987-1992)
JudicialNone
OthersNone
Personal Details
BornApril 19, 1937
Tondo, Manila
Political PartiesPartido ng Masang Pilipino/Nationalist People’s Coalition (1992)
Laban ng Makabayang Masang Pilipino/Partido ng Masang Pilipino and Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino (1998)
ParentsEmilio Liza Ejercito Sr.
Mary Marcelo
SpouseLuisa Pimentel, MD
ChildrenSenator Jose Estrada
Jacqueline Estrada
Jude Estrada
Alma MaterMapua Institute of Technology
Ateneo de Manila High School
OccupationActor

CABINET

Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR)Horacio R. Morales Jr.
Secretary of Agrarian Reform
(July 1, 1998-February 11, 2001)
Department of Agriculture (DA)Edgardo J. Angara
Secretary of Agriculture
(May 25, 1999-January 11, 2001)
William Dar
Secretary of Agriculture
(July 1, 1998-May 24, 1999)
Department of Budget and Management (DBM)Benjamin Diokno
Secretary of Budget and Management
(July 1, 1998-January 22, ,2001)
Department of Education, Culture, and Sports (DECS)Bro. Andrew Gonzales, FSC
Secretary of Education, Culture, and Sports
(July 1, ,1998-January 22, 2001)
Department of Energy (DOE)Mario V. Tiaoqui
Secretary of Energy
(July 1, 1998-January 21, 2001)
Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR)Antonio H. Cerilles
Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources
(July 1, 1998-January 25, 2001)
Department of Finance (DOF)Jose T. Pardo
Secretary of Finance
(January 2, 2000-January 20, 2001)
Edgardo B. Espiritu
Secretary of Finance
(July 1, 1998-December 31, 1999)
Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA)Domingo L. Siazon Jr.
Secretary of Foreign Affairs
(May 1, 1995-January 21, 2001)
Department of Health (DOH)Alberto G. Romualdez Jr.
Secretary of Health
(September 14, 1998-January 21, 2001)
Felipe A. Estrella Jr.
Secretary of Health
(June 30, 1998-September13, 1998)
Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG)Alfredo S. Lim
Secretary of the Interior and Local Government
(January 8, 2000-January 19, 2001)
Ronaldo Puno
Secretary of the Interior and Local Government
(April 12, 1999-January 7, 2001)
Joseph Ejercito Estrada
Secretary of the Interior and Local Government
(July 1, 1998-April 12, 1999)
Department of Justice (DOJ)Artemio G. Tuquero
Secretary of Jutsice
(February 16, 2000-January 23, 2001)
Serafin R. Cuevas
Secretary of Justice
(July 1, 1998-February 15, 2000)
Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE)Bienvenido Laguesma
Secretary of Labor and Employment
(June 30, 1998-January 20, 2001)
Department of National Defense (DND)Orlando S. Mercado
Secretary of National Defense
(June 30, 1998-January 19, 2001)
Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH)Gregorio Vigilar
Secretary of Public Works and Highways
(June 30, 1998-January 20, 2001)
Department of Science and Technology (DOST)Filemon Uriarte
Secretary of Science and Technology
(February 1, 1999-January 1, 2001)
William Padolina
Secretary of Science and Technology
(May 21, 1995-January 29, 1999)
Department of Social Welfare and Devlopment (DSWD)Dulce Q. Saguisag
Secretary of Social Welfare and Development
(October 4, 2000-January 20, 2001)
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Secretary of Social Welfare and Development
(July 1, 1998-October 3, 2000)
Department of Tourism (DOT)Gemma Cruz-Araneta
Secretary of Tourism
(July 1, 1998-January 19, 2001)
Department of Transortation and Communication (DOTC)Vicente C. Rivera Jr.
Secretary of Transportation and Communication
(July 1, 1998-January 30, 2001)
Department of Trade and Industry (DTI)Manuel Mar Roxas
Secretary of Trade and Industry
(January 2, 2000-December 10, 2003)
Jose T. Pardo
Secretary of Trade and Industry
(1998-1999)
National Economic Development Authority (NEDA)Felipe Medalla
Secretary of Socioeconomic Planning
(July 1, 1998-January 23, 2001)
Executive OfficeEdgardo J. Angara
Executive Secretary
(January 1, 2001-January 21, 2001)
Ronaldo Zamora
Executive Secretary
(July 1, 1998-December 31, 2000)
Office of the National Security Adviser (National Security Council)Alexander P. Aguirre
National Security Adviser and Director-General of the National Security Council
(July 1, 1998-January 19, 2001)
Office of the Presidential SpokespersonFernando Barican
Presidential Spokesperson
(June 30,1998-January 20, 2001)
Office of the Press SecretaryRicardo V. Puno
Press Secretary
(April 13, 2000-January 22, 2001)
Rodolfo T. Reyes
Press Secretary
(June 30, 1998-April 12, 2000)
Commission on Higher Education (CHED)Ester A. Garcia
Chairperson of the Commission on Higher Education
(July 12, 1999-May 31, 2003)
Angel Alcala
Chairperson (holdover capacity) of the Commission on Higher Education
(July 5, 1999-July 11, 1999)
Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA)Jejomar C. Binay
Chairperson of the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority
(June 30, 1998-January 20, 2001)
Office of the Presidential Adviser on the Peace ProcessManuel T. Yan
Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process
(June 30, 1998-January 20, 2001)
National Anti-Poverty CommissionDulce Q. Saguisag
Lead Convenor of the National Anti-Poverty Commission
(November 2000-February 2001)
Horacio R. Morales Jr.
Lead Convenor of the National Anti-Poverty Commission
(December 1998-October 2001)
ECONOMIC DATA
  • Population: 73.32 million (1998)
  • Gross Domestic Product: P887,905 million (1998)
  • Gross Domestic Product: P972,960 million (2000)
  • GDP Growth Rate: 2.4% (1998-2000 average)
  • Income Per Capita: P11,814 (1998)
  • Income Per Capita: P12,670 (2000)
  • Total Exports: US$29,496 million (1998)
  • Total Exports: US$37,295 million (2000)
  • Unemployment Rate: 10.05% (1998)
  • Unemployment Rate: 11.20% (2000)
  • Peso-Dollar Exchange Rate: $1 = P40.89 (1998)
  • Peso-Dollar Exchange Rate: $1 = P44.19 (2000)
Source: Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas

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Administration of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (2001–2010)




"On many occasions I have given my views on what our program of government should be. This is not the time or place to repeat them all. However, I can tell you that they converge on four core beliefs.
  1. We must be bold in our national ambitions, so that our challenge must be that within this decade, we will win the fight against poverty.
  2. We must improve moral standards in government and society, in order to provide a strong foundation for good governance.
  3. We must change the character of our politics, in order create fertile ground for true reforms. Our politics of personality and patronage must give way to a new politics of party programs and process of dialogue with the people.
  4. Finally, I believe in leadership by example. We should promote solid traits such as work ethic and a dignified lifestyle, matching action to rhetoric, performing rather than grandstanding.
The first of my core beliefs pertains to the elimination of poverty. This is our unfinished business from the past. It dates back to the creation of our Republic, whose seeds were sown in the revolution launched in 1896 by the plebeian Andres Bonifacio. It was an unfinished revolution, for to this day, poverty remains our national problem. We need to complete what Andres Bonifacio began. The ultimate solution to poverty has both a political and an economic aspect."
(From second inauguration address in 2004)
"When I step down six years from now this will be my 10-point legacy.
I shall have created more than six million jobs, perhaps, even ten million jobs. I shall have supported three million entrepreneurs by giving them loans and helping them become good managers. That way, we shall be establishing a deep foundation for a broad middle class.
I shall have developed one million hectares, if possible two million, of agribusiness land by making them productive and transporting their products to the markets efficiently.
Everyone of school age will be in school in an uncrowded classroom, in surroundings conducive to learning.
I shall have balanced the budget by collecting the right revenues and spending on the right things.
The network of transport and digital infrastructure on which my government embarked in the last three years will have linked the entire country.
Power and water will be regularly provided to all barangays.
Metro Manila will be decongested, with economic activity growing and spreading to new centers of government, business and community in Luzon, in the Visayas and in Mindanao.
The Subic-Clark corridor will be the most competitive international service and logistic center in the Southeast Asian region.
Elections will no longer raise a single doubt about their integrity. The electoral process will be completely computerized. Enough of the manual counting of votes.
And long before that, peace will have come to Mindanao. All insurgents shall have turned their swords into plowshares. They will have become so absorbed into one society that the struggles of the past will be just the stuff of legend.
The divisive issues generated by EDSA 1, 2 and 3 will also be just memories shared by friends from every side in those upheavals. Only the lessons of unity, courage and a just closure kept alive in their hearts.
We must end with justice the conflict brought about by EDSA 1, 2 and 3. There are more things that bind rather than tear us apart as a nation. We are a vibrant country with a lively democracy and fervor burning in our hearts. Industry, patience, fear of God and love for family are common values we hold dear.
The Filipino is known worldwide for his honesty, honor and dignity. We fight for what we believe in.
And finally, I challenge myself and our government to live up to the highest standards of honesty and competence in the public service.
Everyday, I shall get up and work for you. I shall make good and I shall do good for the good of all and not just for the cameras. The canvassing for public attention is over. I expect you to get up everyday to hold me accountable, in the full glare of transparent leadership.  I shall wield the power of the Presidency to uphold truth and justice."
President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (the daughter of President Diosdado Macapagal) was sworn in as Estrada's successor on the day of his departure. Her accession to power was further legitimized by the mid-term congressional and local elections held four months later, when her coalition won an overwhelming victory. Arroyo's initial term in office was marked by fractious coalition politics as well as a military mutiny in Manila in July 2003 that led her to declare a month-long nationwide state of rebellion.
Arroyo had declared in December 2002 that she would not run in the May 2004 presidential election, but she reversed herself in October 2003 and decided to join the race. She was re-elected and sworn in for her own six-year term as president on June 30, 2004. In 2005, a tape of a wiretapped conversation surfaced bearing the voice of Arroyo apparently asking an election official if her margin of victory could be maintained. The tape sparked protests calling for Arroyo's resignation. Arroyo admitted to inappropriately speaking to an election official, but denied allegations of fraud and refused to step down. Attempts to impeach the president failed later that year.
Arroyo unsuccessfully attempted a controversial plan for an overhaul of the constitution to transform the present presidential-bicameral republic into a federal parliamentary-unicameral form of government.
She is now in hospital arrest as of this time but still continuing her position as Pampanga Representative.


Administration of Benigno Aquino III




Kung walang corrupt, walang mahirap. Hindi lamang ito pang slogan o pang poster—ito ang mga prinsipyong tinatayuan at nagsisilbing batayan ng ating administrasyon.

 Ang ating pangunahing tungkulin ay ang magsikap na maiangat ang bansa mula sa kahirapan, sa pamamagitan ng pagpapairal ng katapatan at mabuting pamamalakad sa pamahalaan."

...Ang unang hakbang ay ang pagkakaroon ng tuwid at tapat na hanay ng mga pinuno. Magsisimula ito sa akin. Sisikapin kong maging isang mabuting ehemplo.  Hinding hindi ko sasayangin ang tiwalang ipinagkaloob ninyo sa akin. Sisiguraduhin ko na ganito rin ang adhikain ng aking Gabinete at ng mga magiging kasama sa ating pamahalaan.
Naniniwala akong hindi lahat ng nagsisilbi sa gobyerno ay corrupt. Sa katunayan, mas marami sa kanila ay tapat. Pinili nilang maglingkod sa gobyerno upang gumawa ng kabutihan.  Ngayon, magkakaroon na sila ng pagkakataong magpakitang-gilas.  Inaasahan natin sila sa pagsupil ng korapsyon sa loob mismo ng burukrasya...
... Sa mga itinalaga sa paraang labag sa batas, ito ang aking babala: sisimulan natin ang pagbabalik ng tiwala sa pamamagitan ng pag-usisa sa mga “midnight appointments.” Sana ay magsilbi itong babala sa mga nag-iisip na ipagpatuloy ang baluktot na kalakarang nakasanayan na ng marami.
Hindi natin ipagpapaliban ang mga pangangailangan ng ating mga estudyante, kaya’t sisikapin nating punan ang kakulangan sa ating mga silid-aralan....
... Unti-unti din nating babawasan ang mga kakulangan sa imprastraktura para sa transportasyon, turismo at pangangalakal. Mula ngayon, hindi na puwede ang “puwede na” pagdating sa mga kalye, tulay at gusali dahil magiging responsibilidad ng mga kontratista ang panatilihing nasa mabuting kalagayan ang mga proyekto nila....
Hindi kami magiging sanhi ng inyong pasakit at perwisyo. Palalakasin natin ang koleksyon at pupuksain natin ang korapsyon sa Kawanihan ng Rentas Internas at Bureau of Customs para mapondohan natin ang ating mga hinahangad para sa lahat, tulad ng:
  • dekalidad na edukasyon, kabilang ang edukasyong bokasyonal para makapaghanap ng marangal na trabaho ang hindi makapag-kolehiyo;
  • serbisyong pangkalusugan, tulad ng Philhealth para sa lahat sa loob ng tatlong taon;
  • tirahan sa loob ng mga ligtas na komunidad.
Palalakasin at palalaguin natin ang bilang ng ating kasundaluhan at kapulisan, hindi para tugunan ang interes ng mga naghahari-harian, ngunit para proteksyunan ang mamamayan. Itinataya nila ang kanilang buhay para mayroong pagkakataon sa katahimikan at kapayapaan sa sambayanan. Dumoble na ang populasyong kanilang binabantayan, nanatili naman sila sa bilang.  Hindi tama na ang nagmamalasakit ay kinakawawa...
Gagawin nating kaaya-aya sa negosyante ang ating bansa. We will cut red tape dramatically and implement stable economic policies. We will level the playing field for investors and make government an enabler, not a hindrance, to business. Sa ganitong paraan lamang natin mapupunan ang kakulangan ng trabaho para sa ating mga mamamayan.
Layunin nating paramihin ang trabaho dito sa ating bansa upang hindi na kailanganin ang mangibang-bansa para makahanap ng trabaho. Ngunit habang ito ay hindi pa natin naaabot, inaatasan ko ang mga kawani ng DFA, POEA, OWWA at iba pang mga kinauukulang ahensiya na mas lalo pang paigtingin ang pagtugon sa mga hinaing at pangangailangan ng ating mga overseas Filipino workers...
Ang sinumang nagkamali ay kailangang humarap sa hustisya. Hindi maaaring patuloy ang kalakaran ng walang pananagutan at tuloy na pang-aapi.
My government will be sincere in dealing with all the peoples of Mindanao.  We are committed to a peaceful and just settlement of conflicts, inclusive of the interests of all – may they be Lumads, Bangsamoro or Christian.
We will be a predictable and consistent place for investment, a nation where everyone will say, “it all works.”
Walang lamangan, walang padrino at walang pagnanakaw.  Walang wang-wang, walang counterflow, walang tong.  Panahon na upang tayo ay muling magkawang-gawa.
Nandito tayo ngayon dahil sama-sama tayong nanindigan at nagtiwala na may pag-asa.
The people who are behind us dared to dream. Today, the dream starts to become a reality."


Benigno Aquino III began his presidency on June 30, 2010, the fifteenth President of the Philippines. He is a bachelor and the son of former Philippines president Corazon C. Aquino.


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(TO BE CONTINUED)




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