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THE PHILIPPINE PRESIDENTS
THE PHILIPPINE PRESIDENTS
The traditional transfer of power
Inaugurals signal the transfer of power from the incumbent President to the President-elect, who is recognized as such upon the proclamation of both Houses of Congress.
This tradition dates back to the inauguration of President Manuel Roxas—the first transfer of power from an incumbent (President Osmeña) to a president-elect (Roxas), who was his rival for the presidency.
The only Presidents to have attended the inaugurals of their successors were:
1. Osmeña in 1946. Osmeña attended because it was the first time power was to be transferred from one party to another.
2. Aquino in 1992, to symbolize the first peaceful and constitutional transfer of power since 1969
3. and Ramos in 1998 as part of the centennial celebrations of 1998.
Former President Diosdado Macapagal, assisting his wife (Gloria Macapagal and her brother behind)
[C]ontinuity of government was demonstrated by having a bipartisan committee of [officials] pick up the president-elect in his residence and take him to Malacañan. From there, the incumbent President and the incoming one, along with one member of the committee, board the presidential car for the ride to then-Independence Grandstand where the old and the new part ways. Ninoy Aquino was in the committee which picked up Macapagal at his mother in law’s house on Laura Street, San Juan on December 30, 1961 to escort him to Malacañan to fetch President Garcia for the ride to the Luneta. Ninoy was also among those who fetched Marcos at his Ortega Street residence also in San Juan December 30, 1965 to pick up Macapagal at Malacañan. He rode with Marcos and Macapagal in the car that ultimately took Macapagal to retirement, Marcos to Makiki Heights and him, Ninoy to the tarmac of the airport which now bears his name.
Former President Sergio Osmena (incumbent) and Former President Manuel Roxas (The new President-elect)
President-elect Ramon Magsaysay was invited to try out the presidential chair by President Elpidio Quirino when he arrived to fetch the latter at Malacañan Palace.
President Fidel V. Ramos and President-elect Joseph Ejercito Estrada arrive together at Barasoain Church, June 30, 1998.
Trivia on The Presidents' Oath of Office
The content of the Oath
I do solemnly swear [or affirm] that I will faithfully and conscientiously fulfill my duties as President [or Vice-President or Acting President] of the Philippines, preserve and defend its Constitution, execute its laws, do justice to every man, and consecrate myself to the service of the Nation. So help me God.” [In case of affirmation, last sentence will be omitted.]
Mataimtim kong pinanunumpaan (o pinatotohanan) na tutuparin ko nang buong katapatan at sigasig ang aking mga tungkulin bilang Pangulo (o Pangalawang Pangulo o Nanunungkulang Pangulo) ng Pilipinas, pangangalagaan at ipagtatanggol ang kanyang Konstitusyon, ipatutupad ang mga batas nito, magiging makatarungan sa bawat tao, at itatalaga ang aking sarili sa paglilingkod sa Bansa. Kasihan nawa ako ng Diyos. [Kapag pagpapatotoo, ang huling pangungusap ay kakaltasin.]
Aguinaldo took his oath in Spanish.
Quezon, Osmeña, Roxas, Quirino, Magsaysay, Garcia, Macapagal, Aquino, and Arroyo took their oath in English.
Laurel, Marcos, Ramos, Estrada took their oath in Filipino, as did President Benigno S. Aquino III.
At the conclusion of the oath of office, a twenty-one gun salute, four ruffles (drum rolls) and flourishes (trumpet blasts), and the playing of “Mabuhay”—the presidential anthem composed by Tirso Cruz Sr. and which has been used since the Quezon administration—take place.
Swearing on the Bible
From Aguinaldo to Quirino, presidents did not swear on the bible, a legacy of the Revolution of 1896 and the separation of Church and State.
President Magsaysay was the first president to swear on the bible, in fact using two, one from his father’s and mother’s branch of the family. The bibles were placed on the lectern.
In 1957, Bohol Governor Juan Pajo held the bible as Carlos P. Garcia, a fellow Boholano, took his oath. President Marcos, in 1969, also swore on two bibles, one from his father, the other a gift from his wife.
According to the Malayas, in their book on inaugurals: “Most presidents took oath with their left hand placed on a Bible. The Constitution provides for either the taking of an oath or making an affirmation in case the president-elect is a non-believer. In case of an affirmation, the line ‘So help me God’ is omitted. The affirmation proviso is in line with the principle of the separation of Church and State as well as the ‘non-establishment of religion’ clause which says ‘no religious test shall be required for the exercise of civil and political rights.’”
Places of Inauguration
Congratulated by U.S. Associate Justice Robert Jackson after he administered the oath of office, August 1, 1944 in Washington D.C., Osmeña was the first Philippine Vice President to assume the presidency upon the death of his predecessor.
The only inauguration held on foreign soil was that of Osmeña (1944) in Washington D.C., following the death of President Manuel L. Quezon.
Four inaugurals have taken place outside Manila:
1. Barasoain Church in Malolos, Bulacan in 1899 (Aguinaldo) and 1998 (Estrada);
2. Corregidor Island in 1941 (Quezon);
3. and Cebu City in 2004 (Arroyo).
However, both Estrada and Arroyo delivered their inaugural addresses at the Quirino Grandstand.
President Elpidio Quirino at his inaugural in 1949, in the grandstand that would bear his name.
The Quirino Grandstand, previously called Independence Grandstand and renamed after President Elpidio Quirino who first took his oath there, has been the favored inaugural venue for Presidents since 1949. It was originally a replica of the original Independence Grandstand built specifically for the Independence Ceremonies of July 4, 1946, when the separate and self-governing Republic of the Philippines was established.
Seven Presidents have been inaugurated at the Quirino Grandstand: Quirino (1949), Magsaysay (1953), Garcia (1957), Macapagal (1961), Marcos (1965, 1969, 1981), Ramos (1992), and President Benigno S. Aquino III (2010).
Quezon(1935), Laurel (1943), and Roxas (May 1946) were inaugurated on the steps of the Legislative Building in Manila.
Other inaugurals have been held elsewhere in Manila due to extraordinary circumstances: C. Aquino (1986) in Club Filipino and Marcos (1986) in Maharlika Hall (renamed Kalayaan Hall), and Arroyo (2001 when Estrada was impeached) at EDSA Shrine.
Dates of Inauguration
Starting with Quezon’s second inaugural in 1941 until Marcos’ second inaugural in 1969 (with the exception of the special election called in 1946) presidents were inaugurated on Rizal Day, December 30. Six presidents Quezon (1941), Quirino (1949), Magsaysay, Garcia (1957), Macapagal, Marcos (1965, 1969) had inaugurals on December 30. Presidents Marcos (1981), Ramos (1992), Estrada (1998), Arroyo (2004), and Benigno S. Aquino III (2010) were all inaugurated on June 30.
Ang Panata sa Pagbabago
At the conclusion of the inaugural address of President Benigno S. Aquino III, the public rose to recite the Panata sa Pagbabago. This was an innovation in the 2010 inaugural ceremonies. It was meant to respond to the President’s inaugural address by volunteers and the public at large pledging their support and participation in the democratic governance of the nation. It is likewise thematically aligned with the President’s Social Contract with the Filipino People—his campaign’s guiding principle and the Sixteen-Point Agenda for Change followed by his administration.
Ako ay buong katapatang nanunumpa
Sa ating bansang minamahal at ginagalang
Na aking pagsusumikapang matamo
Ang tunay na pagbabago ng ating bayan
Namamanata ako na tutulong sa ating pamunuan
Sa pagpapataguyod ng marangal na pamamahala
At pagpapalakas ng isang lipunang makatarungan
Na walang palakasan at walang kinikilingan
Na walang lagayan at walang pinapaboran
Gagampanan ko ang lahat ng katungkulan
Ng isang mabuti at matapat na mamamayan
Na kasing tindi ng paghamon ko sa ating mga pinuno
Na sumunod sa landas na tama at matuwid
Upang mabago ang takbo ng kasaysayan
Na magwakas na ang kahirapan
At maitaguyod natin ang ating kabuhayan
Bilang alay sa ating mga anak at salin-lahi ay
Palaganapin natin at itaguyod
Ang isang SAKDAL LINIS, MARANGAL
at MATAGUMPAY na PILIPINO.
Sa isip, sa salita at sa gawa.
Inaugural Addresses of
the Presidents of the Philippines
Emilio Aguinaldo January 23, 1899 Barasoain Church, Malolos, Bulacan
Manuel L. Quezon November 15, 1935 Legislative Building, Manila
December 30, 1941 Corrigidor Island
Jose P. Laurel October 14, 1943 Legislative Building
Manuel L. Quezon November 15, 1943 Shoreham Hotel, Washington D.C.
Sergio Osmena August 10, 1944 Office of the Resident Commisioner, Washington D.C.
Manuel Roxas May 28, 1946 Legislative Building, Manila
Elpidio Quirino April 17, 1948 Council of State Room, Executive Office Building,
December 30, 1949 Independence Grandstand
Ramon Magsaysay December 30, 1953 Independence Grandstand
Carlos P. Garcia March 18, 1957 Council of State Room, Executive Office Building
December 30, 1957 Independence Grandstand
Diosdado Macapagal December 30, 1961 Independence Grandstand
Ferdinand E. Marcos December 30, 1965 Independence Grandstand
December 30, 1969 Independence Grandstand
June 30, 1981 Independence Grandstand
February 25, 1986 Ceremonial Hall, Malacanan Palace
Corazon C. Aquino February 25, 1986 Club Filipino, San Juan
Fidel V. Ramos June 30, 1992 Quirino Grandstand
Joseph E. Estrada June 30, 1998 Quirino Grandstand
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo January 20, 2001 Our Lady of Edsa Shrine, Mandaluyong City
June 30, 2004 Quirino Grandstand
Benigno C. Aquino, Jr. June 30, 2010 Quirino Grandstand, Manila
The Rituals of Climbing of the Stairs at Malacanang
The President formally takes possession of the Palace as his official residence and office, by climbing the main stairs of the Palace for the first time as President of the Philippines. This is a tradition begun by President Quezon, who was moved by the legend that Rizal’s mother climbed the stairs on her knees, to beg for the life of her son. The climbing of the stairs signifies that the chief executive is the freely-elected head of the Filipino people, who is pledged to govern them with justice in contrast to the colonial governors who formerly inhabited the Palace.
"... Hereafter, the Philippines will have a fundamental law, which will unite our people with the other nations by the strongest of solidarities; that is the solidarity of justice, of law, and of right, eternal truths, which are the basis of human dignity...
I congratulate myself also on seeing my constant efforts crowned; efforts which I continued from the time I entered the battlefield with my brave countrymen of Cavite, as did our brothers in other provinces with no arms, but bolos, to secure our liberty and independence...
And finally, I congratulate our beloved people, who from this date will cease to be anonymous and will be able, with legitimate pride, to proclaim to the universe the long coveted name of Philippine Republic...
... We are no longer insurgents; we are no longer revolutionists; that is to say armed men desirous of destroying and annihilating the enemy. We are from now on Republicans; that is to say, men of law, able to fraternize with all other nations, with mutual respect and affection. There is nothing lacking, therefore, in order for us to be recognized and admitted as a free and independent nation..."
First Republic of the Philippines (Malolos Republic)
Prime Minister: Apolinario Mabini (January 21-May 7, 1899); Pedro Paterno (May 7-November 13, 1899)
Chief Justice: None
Senate President: None
Speaker of the House: None
Local: Cabeza de Barangay, Binakayan, KawitProvincial: Capitan Municipal, Kawit National: President of the Revolutionary Government (Tejeros Convention) (March 22, 1897-November 1, 1897) National: President of the Biak-na-Bato Republic (November 2,1897-December 15, 1897) National: Head of the Dictatorial Government (May 24,1898 –June 22, 1898) National: President of the Revolutionary Government (June 23, 1898-January 22, 1899)
General, Philippine Revolutionary ArmyMember, Council of State (Quirino, Roxas, Magsaysay, Garcia, Macapagal administrations)
March 22, 1869 Kawit, Cavite
February 6, 1964 Veterans Memorial Hospital, Quezon City
Aguinaldo Shrine, Kawit, Cavite
Magdalo faction, Katipunan (1897) National Socialist Party (1935)
Hilaria del Rosario (died 1921); Maria Agoncillo (died 1963)
Carmen Aguinaldo Melencio Emilio Aguinaldo, Jr. Maria Aguinaldo Poblete Cristina Aguinaldo Suntay Miguel Aguinaldo
Bachelor of Arts, Colegio de San Juan de Letran (college preparatory)
Ministry of Agriculture, Industry and Commerce
Leon Ma. Gerrero
May 7, 1899 – November 13, 1899
June 23, 1898 – 1899
Department of Public Instruction
March 1900 – December 31, 1902
Department of Treasury
May 9, 1899 – November 13, 1900
July 15, 1898 – May 9, 1899
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
October 1, 1898 – October 30, 1898
Ministry of Interior
Serevino de las Alas
May 7, 1899 – November 13, 1899
January 21, 1899 – May 7, 1899
Ministry of War and Navy
May 7, 1899–November 13, 1899
Emiliano Riego de Dios
Secretary of War
March– November 1897
Ministry of War and Public Works
Ministry of Welfare (Public Instruction, Public Works, Communications, Agriculture, Industry and Commerce)
January 21, 1899 – May 7, 1899
Department of Public Works and Communications
COMMONWEALTH OF THE PHILIPPINES
Manuel L. Quezon
(First President of the Commonwealth)
First term: November 15, 1935-December 30, 1941 Second term: December 30, 1941-August 1, 1944 (term extended on November 15, 1943)
"... Under the Commonwealth, our life may not be one of ease and comfort, but rather of hardship and sacrifice.
We shall face the problems which lie in our path, sparing neither time nor effort in solving them. We shall build a government that will be just, honest, efficient, and strong so that the foundations of the coming Republic may be firm and enduring—a government, indeed, that must satisfy not only the passing needs of the hour but also the exacting demands of the future....
... Even after independence, if we should prove ourselves incapable of protecting life, liberty, and property of nationals and foreigners, we shall be exposed to the danger of intervention by foreign powers...
There can be no progress except under the auspices of peace. Without peace and public order, it will be impossible to promote education, improve the condition of the masses, protect the poor and ignorant against exploitation, and otherwise insure the enjoyment of life, liberty, and property. I appeal, therefore, to every Filipino to give the Government his loyal support so that tranquillity may reign supreme in our beloved land...
...The common man alone can save humanity from disaster. It is our duty to prove to him that under a republican system of government, he can have every opportunity to attain his happiness and that of his family...
...Goodwill towards all nations shall be the golden rule of my administration.International brotherhood and cooperation are therefore necessary. Amity and friendship, fairness and square deal in our relations with other nations and their citizens or subjects, protection in their legitimate investments and pursuits, in return for their temporary allegiance to our institutions and laws, are the assurances I make on behalf of the new Government to Americans and foreigners who may desire to live, trade, and otherwise associate with us in the Philippines..."
Second President of the Philippines
First President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines
"Hand in hand with national self-sufficiency, we should look after the individual welfare of the poorer elements who constitute the bulk of our population; assure decent living conditions of our laboring class by raising the level of the minimum wage; afford help to the needy and suffering, especially to war widows and orphans...
...Loyalty to duty should be exemplified by our public officers and employees who receive compensation from the State. Simple honesty demands that they earn their pay by rendering the full measure of service that is expected of them. They should observe strict punctuality, maintain maximum efficiency, and devote all their official time to government business. Less than this measure of service is morally tantamount to embezzlement of public funds. Public service, in order to be deserving of popular faith and confidence, must be infused with a new meaning and based on the highest considerations of morality. Government employment is neither a sinecure nor an instrument for self-enrichment, but a noble calling of service to the people. Dishonesty, bribery, and corruption have no place in the government and they shall be eradicated without quarter. Our public functionaries shall be faithful servants of the people-tall, strong men and pure, self-sacrificing women who will safeguard the public interests like vestal fire..
...The welfare of the people,” in the fiery language of Andres Bonifacio, “is the supreme purpose of all governments on earth. The people is all; blood, life, wealth, and strength: all is the people.” This is the guiding philosophy of the Constitution and the mandate of those called upon to assist in the establishment of the new government...."
"... The veterans of our wars for independence, and all those who supported our struggle for freedom, will receive for their labors and sacrifices the full recognition expected of a grateful nation. War widows and orphans will be provided for. Ample compensation will be made for the destruction of public and private properties. Roads and bridges destroyed by the enemy will be rebuilt. Disrupted communications by land, sea, and air will be repaired and improved. Towns and cities, which either were destroyed or suffered damages because of the war will be reconstructed under a systematic and scientific town planning program. In this program, the towns of Bataan and Zambales will receive preferential attention. Bataan, the historic battleground where our brave soldiers, Americans and Filipinos, faced the enemy until death, will be made a national shrine....
"... In the preparation and execution of the Filipino rehabilitation program, America’s support and assistance are essential. But there are responsibilities which we as people must undertake ourselves, and which can be assumed only if we are faithful to our ideals, principles, and commitments."
(succeeded) August 1, 1944-May 28, 1946
Fourth President of the Philippines
Second President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines
First term: May 28, 1946 – July 4, 1946 Second term: July 4, 1946 – April 15, 1948
"...For the Philippines to fit into the pattern of the 20th century, to take its place as an equal among the nations of the earth, we must industrialize; we must make as well as grow. Only in this way can we raise to substantial and permanently high levels the living standards of our people.To support this kind of economy, the producers must become consumers and purchasers. They must have the income with which to buy the products of their toil. Higher wages accompanied by efficient and increased production are the true road to full employment. Increased wages and income in pesos must represent increased purchasing power. Prices must be kept under control until production and importation reach saturation levels. We must avoid a price structure based on scarcity. We must avoid a wage structure based on inflated prices. Meanwhile, we must encourage the production of more and more of our primary requirements, production of things we ourselves will consume. The encouragement of production for consumption and the increase in the purchasing power of the masses are parallel paths which we must travel...."
Elections were held in April 1946, with Manuel Roxas becoming the first president of the independent Republic of the Philippines. The United States ceded its sovereignty over the Philippines on July 4, 1946, as scheduled.
However, the Philippine economy remained highly dependent on United States markets– more dependent, according to United States high commissioner Paul McNutt, than any single U.S. state was dependent on the rest of the country. The Philippine Trade Act, passed as a precondition for receiving war rehabilitation grants from the United States, exacerbated the dependency with provisions further tying the economies of the two countries. A military assistance pact was signed in 1947 granting the United States a 99-year lease on designated military bases in the country.
First term: April 17, 1948-December 30, 1949 (succeeded) Second term: December 30,1949-December 30, 1953 (elected)
"... However, I feel it my painful duty to gave stern warning that there shall be no abdication to the authority of the Government and that any defiance of this authority will not be tolerated, but shall be met relentlessly with all the forces at our command."
"... Our Republic can only be worth defending and preserving if it inspires the discipline which establishes a reasonable balance between liberty on one side and security and responsibility on the other. Our peace at home and our prestige abroad rest on the vigor of those loyalties which stamp us as free men whose self‑interest encompasses the welfare and happiness of our fellows here and beyond our borders...
...Our people should not expect me to do anything but what is right, and I expect everyone to support me to the limit in this resolve. I shall give constant battle to graftand corruption and will not tolerate irregularities of any sort under whatever name. Buying one’s way to any political preference, economic advantage, or social distinction will not be allowed. I want this point understood from the beginning so that individuals and party men who have other ideas and expectations will not be disappointed. Our country and people must believe in me and support me in this resolve, if I am to achieve any success in this direction...
Former President Elpidio Quirino's statue in Vigan, Ilocos Sur
"...My countrymen, you elected me because you want me to serve the country well. Help me always to do so. Give me your light when my way is dark. Give me strength when you see me weaken. Give me courage always to do the right thing. Help me build for our people a new reputation for honesty and fair dealing. Help me establish a new integrity on our thinking, in our words, in our deeds. Let us be men, as the best of our breed have tried to be. Let us be true to ourselves so that we cannot be false to any man or any people. Then we can know the right thing, and I, as your servant, can do the right thing for all the world to judge...."
Former President Elpidio Quirino during former President Manuel Roxas' wake.
The Roxas administration granted general amnesty to those who had collaborated with the Japanese in World War II, except for those who had committed violent crimes. Roxas died suddenly of a heart attack in April 1948, and the vice president, Elpidio Quirino, was elevated to the presidency. He ran for president in his own right in 1949, defeating José P. Laurel and winning a four-year term.
World War II had left the Philippines demoralized and severely damaged. The task of reconstruction was complicated by the activities of the Communist-supported Hukbalahap guerrillas (known as "Huks"), who had evolved into a violent resistance force against the new Philippine government. Government policy towards the Huks alternated between gestures of negotiation and harsh suppression. Secretary of Defense Ramon Magsaysay initiated a campaign to defeat the insurgents militarily and at the same time win popular support for the government. The Huk movement had waned in the early 1950s, finally ending with the unconditional surrender of Huk leader Luis Taruc in May 1954.
Supported by the United States, Magsaysay was elected president in 1953 on a populist platform. He promised sweeping economic reform, and made progress in land reform by promoting the resettlement of poor people in the Catholic north into traditionally Muslim areas. Though this relieved population pressure in the north, it heightened religious hostilities. Nevertheless, he was extremely popular with the common people, and his death in an airplane crash in March 1957 dealt a serious blow to national morale.
Jose B. Laurel Jr. (January 25, 1954-December 30, 1957)
Cabinet: Secretary of National Defense (December 14, 1950-February 28, 1953)
Lower House: Representative, Lone District of Zambales (1946-1950)
Military: Captain, Philippine Army
August 31, 1907
March 17, 1957
Mount Manunggal, Asturias, Cebu
Manila North Cemetery, Manila
Liberal Party (1946-1953)
Nacionalista Party (1953-1957)
Perfecta del Fierro
Teresita Magsaysay Vargas
Milagros Magsaysay Valenzuela
Senator Ramon Magsaysay Jr.
Bachelor of Arts in Commerce, Jose Rizal College (1932)
Bus Shop Superintendent
Bus Line Branch Manager
Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources
Juan de G. Rodriguez
Secretary of Agriculture and Natural Resources
(April 12, 1956-August 1960)
Secretary of Agriculture and Natural Resources
(March 10, 1954-1955)
Department of Education
Gregorio Hernandez Jr.
Secretary of Education
(July 1, 1954-March 28, 1957)
Secretary of Education
(January 13, 1954-June 30, 1954)
Secretary of Education
(April 18, 1952-January 13, 1954)
Department of Finance
Secretary of Finance
(March 10, 1954-May 27, 1956)
Department of Foreign Affairs
Carlos P. Garcia
Secretary of Foreign Affairs
(March 10, 1954-August 1957)
Department of Health
Paulino J. Garcia
Secretary of Health
(March 10, 1954-March 17, 1957)
Presidential Arm on Community Development
Department of Justice
Pedro T. Tuazon
Secretary of Justice
(March 10, 1954-March 1958)
Department of Labor
Secretary of Labor
(August 22, 1957)
Secretary of Labor
(April 21, 1954)
Department of National Defense
Eulogio B. Balao
Secretary of National Defense
(January 3, 1956-March 17, 1957)
Sotero B. Cabahug
Secretary of National Defense
(April 4, 1954-January 2, 1956)
Concurrent capacity as President
(January 1-May 14, 1954)
Department of Public Works, Transportation, and Communication
Secretary of Public Works, ,Transportation, and Communication
(April 30, 1955-1957)
Vicente Y. Orosa
Secretary of Public Works, ,Transportation, and Communication
Department of Commerce and Industry
Secretary of Commerce and Industry
(March 10, 1954-1957)
Fortunato De Leon
(April 12, 1956-March 7, 1957)
Fred Ruiz Castro
(December 30, 1953-October 26, 1955)
Population: 21.4 million (1954)
Gross Domestic Product: P157,054 million (1954)
Gross Domestic Product: P179,739 million (1956)
GDP Growth Rate: 7.13% (1954-1956 average)
Income Per Capita: P7,339 (1954)
Income Per Capita: P8,073 (1956)
Total Exports: P36,462 million (1954)
Total Exports: P34,727 million (1956)
Unemployment Rate: 11.2% (1956)
Source: National Statistical Coordination Board, National Accounts of the Philippines, National Statistics Office, Philippine Statistical Yearbook
Administration of Carlos P. Garcia (1957–1961)
First term: March 18, 1957-December 30, 1957 (succeeded) Second term: December 30, 1957-December 30, 1961 (elected)
"To the common man, especially the needy, the forsaken and the victims of injustice, Malacañang symbolizes hope, faith and justice. Under my administration, Malacañang will remain such a symbol. This Government will carry on dispensing social justice and protecting human rights...
... The Government will continue its low‑cost housing projects and its land redistribution and resettlement program. We shall exert greater efforts so that more of our poor will eventually acquire homes and lands that they can call their very own...."
Carlos P. Garcia succeeded to the presidency after Magsaysay's death, and was elected to a four-year term in the election of November that same year. His administration emphasized the nationalist theme of "Filipino first", arguing that the Filipino people should be given the chances to improve the country's economy. Garcia successfully negotiated for the United States' relinquishment of large military land reservations. However, his administration lost popularity on issues of government corruption as his term advanced.
"The primary function of the President is not to dispense favors but to dispense justice. The presidential oath of office contains the special pledge to “do justice to every man... Our first mission is the solution of the problem of corruption. We assume leadership at a time when our Nation is in the throes of a moral degeneration unprecedented in our national history. Never within the span of human memory has graft permeated every level of government. The solution of this problem shall call for the exercise of the tremendous persuasive power of the Presidency. I shall consider it, therefore, my duty to set a personal example in honesty and uprightness. We must prove that ours is not a Nation of hopeless grafters but a race of good and decent men and women...The basic national problem is the poverty of the masses. Our third mission, therefore, is the creation of conditions that will provide more income for our people – income for those who have none and more income for those whose earnings are inadequate for their elemental needs. Millions of our people are unemployed and millions more are unemployed and millions more are under-employed. We must rectify this situation to help our people attain a higher level of living and create the domestic buying power that can help generate prosperity. Unless solved in time, this problem will worsen to the point of disaster in view of our population explosion.
... The permanent solution to this problem is the rapid and sound utilization of our vast and rich natural resources in order to create opportunities for employment. We believe that the effective accomplishment of this task should be left to the citizens themselves, that is, to private enterprise."
President Diosdado Macapagal, sharing a light moment with daughter Gloria—who’d then become the fourteenth President of the Philippines, and is now the Representative of the Second District of Pampanga.
To establish owner-cultivatorship and the economic family-size farm as the basis of Philippine agriculture and, as a consequence, divert landlord capital in agriculture to industrial development;
To achieve a dignified existence for the small farmers free from pernicious institutional restraints and practices;
To create a truly viable social and economic structure in agriculture conducive to greater productivity and higher farm incomes;
To apply all labor laws equally and without discrimination to both industrial and agricultural wage earners;
To provide a more vigorous and systematic land resettlement program and public land distribution; and
To make the small farmers more independent, self-reliant and responsible citizens, and a source of genuine strength in our democratic society.
and, in pursuance of those policies, established the following
An agricultural leasehold system to replace all existing share tenancy systems in agriculture;
A declaration of rights for agricultural labor;
An authority for the acquisition and equitable distribution of agricultural land;
An institution to finance the acquisition and distribution of agricultural land;
A machinery to extend credit and similar assistance to agriculture;
A machinery to provide marketing, management, and other technical services to agriculture;
A unified administration for formulating and implementing projects of land reform;
An expanded program of land capability survey, classification, and registration; and
A judicial system to decide issues arising under this Code and other related laws and regulations.
Maphilindo was a proposed nonpolitical confederation of Malaya, the Philippines, and Indonesia. It was based on concepts developed during the Commonwealth government in the Philippines by Wenceslao Vinzons and by Eduardo L. Martelino in his 1959 book Someday, Malaysia".
In July 1963, President Diosdado Macapagal of the Philippines convened a summit meeting in Manila. Maphilindo was proposed as a realization of José Rizal's dream of bringing together the Malay peoples. However, this was perceived as a tactic on the parts of Jakarta and Manila to delay or prevent the formation of the Federation of Malaysia. The plan failed when Indonesian President Sukarno adopted his plan of Konfrontasi with Malaysia.
President-elect Diosdado Macapagal departs from his residence on Laura Street, San Juan to fetch President Carlos P. Garcia at Malacañan Palace.
Ferdinand E. Marcos December 30, 1965 – February 25, 1986
"We have come upon a phase of our history when ideas are only a veneer for greed and power in public and private affairs, when devotion to duty and dedication to a public trust are to be weighed at all times against private advantages and personal gain, and when loyalties can be traded in the open market.... We are in crisis. You know that the government treasury is empty.
... Our government in the past few months has exhausted all available domestic and foreign sources of borrowing. Our public financial institutions have been burdened to the last loanable peso. The lending capacity of the Central Bank has been utilized to the full. Our national government is indebted to our local governments. There are no funds available for public works and little of the appropriations for our national government for the present fiscal year. Industry is at a standstill. Many corporations have declared bankruptcy. Local manufacturing firmshave been compelled to close or reduce their capacity.... I, therefore, first call upon the public servants for self-sacrifice.
... Every form of waste – or of conspicuous consumption and extravagance, shall be condemned as inimical to public welfare...."
"For discipline is the other face of achievement.... Let every man be his own master, but let him first, and above all, be his own charge.
It is our destiny to transform this nation; we begin by transforming ourselves first. In this formidable task, no Filipino, no one in the land will be exempt whatever his station in life."
The leaders of the SEATO nations in front of the Congress Building in Manila, hosted by Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos on October 24, 1966. (L-R:) Prime Minister Nguyen Cao Ky (South Vietnam), Prime Minister Harold Holt (Australia), President Park Chung-hee (South Korea), President Ferdinand Marcos (Philippines), Prime Minister Keith Holyoake (New Zealand), Lt. Gen. Nguyễn Văn Thiệu (South Vietnam), Prime Minister Thanom Kittikachorn (Thailand), President Lyndon B. Johnson (United States)
Macapagal ran for re-election in 1965, but was defeated by his former party-mate, Senate President Ferdinand Marcos, who had switched to the Nacionalista Party. Early in his presidency, Marcos initiated ambitious public works projects and intensified tax collection which brought the country economic prosperity throughout the 1970s. His administration built more roads (including a substantial portion of the Pan-Philippine Highway) than all his predecessors combined, and more schools than any previous administration. Marcos was re-elected president in 1969, becoming the first president of the independent Philippines to achieve a second term.
The Philippine Legislature was corrupt and impotent. Opponents of Marcos blocked the necessary legislation to implement his ambitious plans. Because of this, optimism faded early in his second term and economic growth slowed. Crime and civil disobedience increased. The Communist Party of the Philippines formed the New People's Army. The Moro National Liberation Front continued to fight for an independent Muslim nation in Mindanao. An explosion during the proclamation rally of the senatorial slate of the Liberal Party on August 21, 1971 prompted Marcos to suspend the writ of habeas corpus, which he restored on January 11, 1972 after public protests.
Amidst the rising wave of lawlessness and the threat of a Communist insurgency, Marcos declared martial law on September 21, 1972 by virtue of Proclamation No. 1081. Marcos, ruling by decree, curtailed press freedom and other civil liberties, closed down Congress and media establishments, and ordered the arrest of opposition leaders and militant activists, including his staunchest critics senators Benigno Aquino, Jr., Jovito Salonga and Jose Diokno. The declaration of martial law was initially well received, given the social turmoil the Philippines was experiencing. Crime rates plunged dramatically after a curfew was implemented. Many political opponents were forced to go into exile.
A constitutional convention, which had been called for in 1970 to replace the colonial 1935 Constitution, continued the work of framing a new constitution after the declaration of martial law. The new constitution went into effect in early 1973, changing the form of government from presidential to parliamentary and allowing Marcos to stay in power beyond 1973.
Marcos claimed that martial law was the prelude to creating a "New Society" based on new social and political values. The economy during the 1970s was robust, with budgetary and trade surpluses. The Gross National Product rose from P55 billion in 1972 to P193 billion in 1980. Tourism rose, contributing to the economy's growth.However, Marcos, his cronies, and his wife, Imelda Romualdez-Marcos, willfully engaged in rampant corruption.
Appeasing the Roman Catholic Church, Marcos officially lifted martial law on January 17, 1981. However, he retained much of the government's power for arrest and detention. Corruption and nepotism as well as civil unrest contributed to a serious decline in economic growth and development under Marcos, whose health declined due to lupus.
The political opposition boycotted the 1981 presidential elections, which pitted Marcos against retired general Alejo Santos. Marcos won by a margin of over 16 million votes, which constitutionally allowed him to have another six-year term. Finance Minister Cesar Virata was appointed as Prime Minister by Marcos.
Former Senator Benigno Aquino, Sr. with wife Mrs. Corazon Conjuangco-Aquino
In 1983, opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr. was assassinated at the Manila International Airport upon his return to the Philippines after a long period of exile. This coalesced popular dissatisfaction with Marcos and began a succession of events, including pressure from the United States, that culminated in a snap presidential election in February 1986. The opposition united under Aquino's widow, Corazon Aquino.
The official election canvasser, the Commission on Elections (Comelec), declared Marcos the winner of the election. However, there was a large discrepancy between the Comelec results and that of Namfrel, an accredited poll watcher. The allegedly fraudulent result was rejected by Corazon Aquino and her supporters. International observers, including a U.S. delegation, denounced the official results. General Fidel Ramos and Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile withdrew their support for Marcos. A peaceful civilian-military uprising, now popularly called the People Power Revolution, forced Marcos into exile and installed Corazon Aquino as president on February 25, 1986.
Corazon Aquino immediately formed a revolutionary government to normalize the situation, and provided for a transitional "Freedom Constitution". A new permanent constitution was ratified and enacted in February 1987. The constitution crippled presidential power to declare martial law, proposed the creation of autonomous regions in the Cordilleras and Muslim Mindanao, and restored the presidential form of government and the bicameral Congress. Progress was made in revitalizing democratic institutions and respect for civil liberties, but Aquino's administration was also viewed as weak and fractious, and a return to full political stability and economic development was hampered by several attempted coups staged by disaffected members of the Philippine military.
Economic growth was additionally hampered by a series of natural disasters, including the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo that left 700 dead and 200,000 homeless. During the Aquino presidency, Manila witnessed six unsuccessful coup attempts, the most serious occurring in December 1989.
In 1991, the Philippine Senate rejected a treaty that would have allowed a 10-year extension of the U.S. military bases in the country. The United States turned over Clark Air Base in Pampanga to the government in November, and Subic Bay Naval Base in Zambales in December 1992, ending almost a century of U.S. military presence in the Philippines.
" Ninoy believed that only the united strength of the Filipino people would suffice to overturn a tyranny so evil and so well-organized. The brutal murder of Ninoy created that unity in strength that has come to be known as “Lakas ng Bayan”–- people power.
People power shattered the dictatorship, protected those in the military that chose freedom, and today, has established a government dedicated to this protection and meaningful fulfillment of our rights and liberties.
We became exiles, we Filipinos who are at home only in freedom, when Marcos destroyed the Republic fourteen years ago."
Teodoro L. Locsin Jr.
Minister of Public Information
(March 25, 1986-September 14, 1987)
Population: 56.00 million (1986)
Gross Domestic Product: P591,423 million (1986)
Gross Domestic Product: P716,522 million (1991)
GDP Growth Rate: 3.33% (1986-1991 average)
Income Per Capita: P10,622 (1986)
Income Per Capita: P11,250 (1991)
Total Exports: P160,571 million (1986)
Total Exports: P231,515 million (1991)
Unemployment Rate: 11.83% (1986)
Unemployment Rate: 10.58% (1991)
Peso-Dollar Exchange Rate: $1 = P20.38 (1986)
Peso-Dollar Exchange Rate: $1 = P27.61 (1991)
Source: National Statistical Coordination Board, National Accounts of the Philippines, National Statistics Office, Philippine Statistical Yearbook
Administration of Fidel V. Ramos (1992–1998)
June 30, 1992 – June 30, 1998
"Kung nais nating matupad ang pangarap ni Rizal – “Karagdagang katarungan at malawak na kalayaan “–sundin natin ang kanyang tagubilin:
Itakwil ang pagkawatak-watak … yakapin ang pagkakaisa … at minsan pa’y buhayin natin ang diwa ng ating bansa.
Tulad ng natanaw ni Rizal, ngayon na ang panahon upang sabihin sa ating sarili–na kung nais nating makaahon, kung nais nating umunlad, dapat tayo’y kumilos sa ating sariling pagsisikap. Sa pagkilos na ito, sabi ni Rizal, “dapat nating ibuhos ang buong liwanag ng ating mga kaisipan at lahat ng tibukin ng ating puso.”
"If we are to attain what Rizal wished for his posterity–“More law and greater liberty”–we must do as he prescribed. We must stifle our dissensions and summon once more the spirit of this nation.
As Rizal foresaw, the time has come to tell ourselves that if we wish to be saved, we must redeem ourselves. And in this work of self redemption, we must “expend the whole light of our intellect, and all the fervor of our hearts.”
In the 1992 elections, Defense Secretary Fidel V. Ramos, endorsed by Aquino, won the presidency with just 23.6% of the vote in a field of seven candidates. Early in his administration, Ramos declared "national reconciliation" his highest priority and worked at building a coalition to overcome the divisiveness of the Aquino years. He legalized theCommunist Party and laid the groundwork for talks with communist insurgents, Muslim separatists, and military rebels, attempting to convince them to cease their armed activities against the government. In June 1994, Ramos signed into law a general conditional amnesty covering all rebel groups, and Philippine military and police personnel accused of crimes committed while fighting the insurgents. In October 1995, the government signed an agreement bringing the military insurgency to an end. A peace agreement with the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), a major separatist group fighting for an independent homeland in Mindanao, was signed in 1996, ending the 24-year old struggle. However, an MNLF splinter group, the Moro Islamic Liberation Front continued the armed struggle for an Islamic state. Efforts by Ramos supporters to gain passage of an amendment that would allow him to run for a second term were met with large-scale protests, leading Ramos to declare he would not seek re-election.
Jose T. Almonte
Presidential Security Adviser and Director-General
(July 1, 1992-June 30, 1998)
Office of the Press Secretary
Hector R.R. Villanueva
(June 21, 1995-June 29, 1998)
Jesus C. Sison
(May 11, 1993-June 20, 1995)
Rodolfo T. Reyes
(July 1, 1992-May 10, 1993)
Commission on Higher Education (CHED)
Chairperson of the Commission on Higher Education
(July 1, 1995-July 4, 1999)
Ricardo T. Gloria
Chairperson of the Commission on Higher Education
(May 18, 1994-June 30, 1995)
Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA)
Chairperson of the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority
Metro Manila Authority
Ismael Mathay Jr.
Chairperson of the Metro Manila Authority
Office of the Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process
Manuel T. Yan
Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process
Oscar F. Santos
Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process
(August 20, 1993-March 22, 1994)
Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process
(July 1, 1992-August 19, 1993)
Population: 63.82 million (1992)
Gross Domestic Product: P718,941 million (1992)
Gross Domestic Product: P893,151 million (1997)
GDP Growth Rate: 4.9% (1992-1998 average)
Income Per Capita: P11,265 (1992)
Income Per Capita: P12,147 (1997)
Total Exports: US$9,824 million (1992)
Total Exports: US$25,228 million (1997)
Unemployment Rate: 9.78% (1992)
Unemployment Rate: 8.7% (1997)
Peso-Dollar Exchange Rate: $1 = P25.51 (1992)
Peso-Dollar Exchange Rate: $1 = P29.47 (1997)
Source: Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas
Administration of Joseph Estrada (1998–2001)
June 30, 1998-January 20, 2001
"... Walang dahilan upang lumaganap ang krimen sa ating lipunan; mangyayari lang ito kung ang gobyerno mismo ay kumukupkop sa mga kriminal. Walang organisasyon o gawaing kriminal na kayang lumaban sa pamahalaan, kung ang pamahalaan ay tapat sa pagnanasang durugin ang mga kriminalidad.
We know that the major crimes in this country are commited by hoodlums in uniforms. We know they are protected by hoodlums in robes. We know that the most damaging crimes against society are not those of petty thieves in rags, but those of economic saboteurs in business suits: the dishonest stockbrockers, the wheeling- dealing businessman, influence-peddlers, price-padders and other crooks in government.
Ipinangangako ko ngayon: gagamitin natin ang buong kapangyarihan ng pamahalaan upang labanan ang krimen – maliit man o malaki. Walang makakalusot. Itatangi. I will use all the powers of government to stamp out crime, big and small.
There will be no excuses, and there will be no exceptions. I have sent friends to jail before, I can send them again.
No government is so powerless that it cannot protect its citizens, especially when they are victimized by government agents.
No government is so helpless that it cannot prosecute criminals, especially when the officials are criminals operating in the open.
Hindi makatarungan na sa isang bansang karamihan ay nagugutom at walang hanapbuhay, ang kaban ng bayan ay winawaldas at ninanakaw. At ang likas na yaman ay pinaghahati-hatian ng malalakas sa gobyerno.
So let me tell you today. There are things that a government, even in the worst economic conditions, can do.
This government will do those things.
Kaya nating sugpuin ang lumalaganap na krimen. Ginawa ko at magagawa ko noong ako ay namuno ng Presidential Anti – Crime Commission. Gagawin ko ngayon ang lahat, ngayon na Pangulo na ako. At walang sinumang makakapigil sa akin.
Kaya pa rin ng pamahalaan ang magbigay ng mahahalagang serbisyo: mga lansangan, mga paaralan, mga health centers, sapat na bilang ng mga pulis at sandatahang lakas na sadyang katahimikan ang likha at alaga.
Magagawa ng gobyerno ang lahat ng ito, huwag lamang haluan ng nakawan at pork barrel.
Hindi mapapakain ng pamunuan ang lahat ng mga nagugutom sa ating bansa sa kasalukuyan. Pero uusigin natin ang sinumang kukupit sa pondo na nakalaan sa pagbili ng pagkain.
Hindi kaya ng gobyerno na pagbigyan ang lahat ng mga lugar na nangangailangan ng kalsadang konkreto at aspaltado. Pero hindi natin palalampasin ang sinumang magnanakaw ng perang nakalaan sa paglikha ng mga tulay at kalsada.
Hindi kaya agad ng pamahalaan na pabalikin ang milyun-milyong Overseas Contract Workers, at bigyan sila ng hanapbuhay sa ating bayan. Dama natin ang kalungkutan at sakit ng paghihiwalay sa kanilang mahal sa buhay. Subalit makakaasa sila na hindi natin pababayaan ang kanilang mga pamilya at mga anak. At lalong hindi natin kaliligtaan ang mga kapakanan nila sa ibang bansa.
Hindi kayang bigyan ng sapat na edukasyon ang lahat ng mga kabataang Pilipino sa ngayon, tulad nang itinadhana sa Saligang Batas. Pero hindi natin palalampasin ang sinumang nagwawaldas sa pondong nakalaan sa mga libro at paaralan...."
I appeal to the coming Congress to search its conscience for a way to stand behind me, rather than against me, on the pork barrel issue. I appeal to every legislator: let us find a way to convert pork into tuition subsidies in both public and private schools. Let us use it to the better lives of our people, rather than to improve our chances of re – election.
There are crimes that I will make my personal apostolate to punish:
-low crimes in the streets, by rich and poor alike;
-high crimes in Ayala Avenue and Binondo;
-graft and corruption throughout the government, whether in the executive, the legislative, or the judiciary.
Ngayon pa lamang, ang mga kamag-anak ko ay nilalapitan na ng kung sinu-sino. Kung anu-anong deal at kickback ang ipinapangako.
Binabalaan ko sila. Walang kaibigan, walang kumpare, walang kamag-anak o anak na maaaring magsamantala sa ngayon. At ngayon pa lamang sinasabi ko sa inyo, nag-aaksaya lamang kayo ng panahon. Huwag ninyo akong subukan.
Nais kong isipin ng bawa’t Pilipino, mahirap man o mayaman, na ang pinakaligtas na lugar sa buong mundo, ay ang kanyang lupang tinubuan.
(I want every Filipino, rich or poor alike, to feel that the safest place in the world for him is his own country.)"
Joseph Estrada, a former movie actor who had served as Ramos' vice president, was elected president by a landslide victory in 1998. His election campaign pledged to help the poor and develop the country's agricultural sector. He enjoyed widespread popularity, particularly among the poor. Estrada assumed office amid the Asian Financial Crisis. The economy did, however, recover from a low −0.6% growth in 1998 to a moderate growth of 3.4% by 1999. Like his predecessor there was a similar attempt to change the 1987 constitution. The process is termed as CONCORD or Constitutional Correction for Development. Unlike Charter change under Ramos and Arroyo the CONCORD proposal, according to its proponents, would only amend the 'restrictive' economic provisions of the constitution that is considered as impeding the entry of more foreign investments in the Philippines. However it was not successful in amending the constitution.
On March 21, 2000 President Estrada declared an "all-out-war" against the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) after the worsening secessionist movement in Midanao The government later captured 46 MILF camps including the MILF's headquarters', Camp Abubakar. In October 2000, however, Estrada was accused of having accepted millions of pesos in payoffs from illegal gambling businesses. He was impeached by the House of Representatives, but his impeachment trial in the Senate broke down when the senate voted to block examination of the president's bank records. In response, massive street protests erupted demanding Estrada's resignation. Faced with street protests, cabinet resignations, and a withdrawal of support from the armed forces, Estrada was forced from office on January 20, 2001.
Administration of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (2001–2010)
"On many occasions I have given my views on what our program of government should be. This is not the time or place to repeat them all. However, I can tell you that they converge on four core beliefs.
We must be bold in our national ambitions, so that our challenge must be that within this decade, we will win the fight against poverty.
We must improve moral standards in government and society, in order to provide a strong foundation for good governance.
We must change the character of our politics, in order create fertile ground for true reforms. Our politics of personality and patronage must give way to a new politics of party programs and process of dialogue with the people.
Finally, I believe in leadership by example. We should promote solid traits such as work ethic and a dignified lifestyle, matching action to rhetoric, performing rather than grandstanding.
The first of my core beliefs pertains to the elimination of poverty. This is our unfinished business from the past. It dates back to the creation of our Republic, whose seeds were sown in the revolution launched in 1896 by the plebeian Andres Bonifacio. It was an unfinished revolution, for to this day, poverty remains our national problem. We need to complete what Andres Bonifacio began. The ultimate solution to poverty has both a political and an economic aspect."
(From second inauguration address in 2004)
"When I step down six years from now this will be my 10-point legacy.
I shall have created more than six million jobs, perhaps, even ten million jobs. I shall have supported three million entrepreneurs by giving them loans and helping them become good managers. That way, we shall be establishing a deep foundation for a broad middle class.
I shall have developed one million hectares, if possible two million, of agribusiness land by making them productive and transporting their products to the markets efficiently.
Everyone of school age will be in school in an uncrowded classroom, in surroundings conducive to learning.
I shall have balanced the budget by collecting the right revenues and spending on the right things.
The network of transport and digital infrastructure on which my government embarked in the last three years will have linked the entire country.
Power and water will be regularly provided to all barangays.
Metro Manila will be decongested, with economic activity growing and spreading to new centers of government, business and community in Luzon, in the Visayas and in Mindanao.
The Subic-Clark corridor will be the most competitive international service and logistic center in the Southeast Asian region.
Elections will no longer raise a single doubt about their integrity. The electoral process will be completely computerized. Enough of the manual counting of votes.
And long before that, peace will have come to Mindanao. All insurgents shall have turned their swords into plowshares. They will have become so absorbed into one society that the struggles of the past will be just the stuff of legend.
The divisive issues generated by EDSA 1, 2 and 3 will also be just memories shared by friends from every side in those upheavals. Only the lessons of unity, courage and a just closure kept alive in their hearts.
We must end with justice the conflict brought about by EDSA 1, 2 and 3. There are more things that bind rather than tear us apart as a nation. We are a vibrant country with a lively democracy and fervor burning in our hearts. Industry, patience, fear of God and love for family are common values we hold dear.
The Filipino is known worldwide for his honesty, honor and dignity. We fight for what we believe in.
And finally, I challenge myself and our government to live up to the highest standards of honesty and competence in the public service.
Everyday, I shall get up and work for you. I shall make good and I shall do good for the good of all and not just for the cameras. The canvassing for public attention is over. I expect you to get up everyday to hold me accountable, in the full glare of transparent leadership. I shall wield the power of the Presidency to uphold truth and justice."
President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (the daughter of President Diosdado Macapagal) was sworn in as Estrada's successor on the day of his departure. Her accession to power was further legitimized by the mid-term congressional and local elections held four months later, when her coalition won an overwhelming victory. Arroyo's initial term in office was marked by fractious coalition politics as well as a military mutiny in Manila in July 2003 that led her to declare a month-long nationwide state of rebellion.
Arroyo had declared in December 2002 that she would not run in the May 2004 presidential election, but she reversed herself in October 2003 and decided to join the race. She was re-elected and sworn in for her own six-year term as president on June 30, 2004. In 2005, a tape of a wiretapped conversation surfaced bearing the voice of Arroyo apparently asking an election official if her margin of victory could be maintained. The tape sparked protests calling for Arroyo's resignation. Arroyo admitted to inappropriately speaking to an election official, but denied allegations of fraud and refused to step down. Attempts to impeach the president failed later that year.
Arroyo unsuccessfully attempted a controversial plan for an overhaul of the constitution to transform the present presidential-bicameral republic into a federal parliamentary-unicameral form of government.
She is now in hospital arrest as of this time but still continuing her position as Pampanga Representative.
Administration of Benigno Aquino III
“Kung walang corrupt, walang mahirap. Hindi lamang ito pang slogan o pang poster—ito ang mga prinsipyong tinatayuan at nagsisilbing batayan ng ating administrasyon.
Ang ating pangunahing tungkulin ay ang magsikap na maiangat ang bansa mula sa kahirapan, sa pamamagitan ng pagpapairal ng katapatan at mabuting pamamalakad sa pamahalaan."
...Ang unang hakbang ay ang pagkakaroon ng tuwid at tapat na hanay ng mga pinuno. Magsisimula ito sa akin. Sisikapin kong maging isang mabuting ehemplo. Hinding hindi ko sasayangin ang tiwalang ipinagkaloob ninyo sa akin. Sisiguraduhin ko na ganito rin ang adhikain ng aking Gabinete at ng mga magiging kasama sa ating pamahalaan.
Naniniwala akong hindi lahat ng nagsisilbi sa gobyerno ay corrupt. Sa katunayan, mas marami sa kanila ay tapat. Pinili nilang maglingkod sa gobyerno upang gumawa ng kabutihan. Ngayon, magkakaroon na sila ng pagkakataong magpakitang-gilas. Inaasahan natin sila sa pagsupil ng korapsyon sa loob mismo ng burukrasya...
... Sa mga itinalaga sa paraang labag sa batas, ito ang aking babala: sisimulan natin ang pagbabalik ng tiwala sa pamamagitan ng pag-usisa sa mga “midnight appointments.” Sana ay magsilbi itong babala sa mga nag-iisip na ipagpatuloy ang baluktot na kalakarang nakasanayan na ng marami.
Hindi natin ipagpapaliban ang mga pangangailangan ng ating mga estudyante, kaya’t sisikapin nating punan ang kakulangan sa ating mga silid-aralan....
... Unti-unti din nating babawasan ang mga kakulangan sa imprastraktura para sa transportasyon, turismo at pangangalakal. Mula ngayon, hindi na puwede ang “puwede na” pagdating sa mga kalye, tulay at gusali dahil magiging responsibilidad ng mga kontratista ang panatilihing nasa mabuting kalagayan ang mga proyekto nila....
Hindi kami magiging sanhi ng inyong pasakit at perwisyo. Palalakasin natin ang koleksyon at pupuksain natin ang korapsyon sa Kawanihan ng Rentas Internas at Bureau of Customs para mapondohan natin ang ating mga hinahangad para sa lahat, tulad ng:
dekalidad na edukasyon, kabilang ang edukasyong bokasyonal para makapaghanap ng marangal na trabaho ang hindi makapag-kolehiyo;
serbisyong pangkalusugan, tulad ng Philhealth para sa lahat sa loob ng tatlong taon;
tirahan sa loob ng mga ligtas na komunidad.
Palalakasin at palalaguin natin ang bilang ng ating kasundaluhan at kapulisan, hindi para tugunan ang interes ng mga naghahari-harian, ngunit para proteksyunan ang mamamayan. Itinataya nila ang kanilang buhay para mayroong pagkakataon sa katahimikan at kapayapaan sa sambayanan. Dumoble na ang populasyong kanilang binabantayan, nanatili naman sila sa bilang. Hindi tama na ang nagmamalasakit ay kinakawawa...
Gagawin nating kaaya-aya sa negosyante ang ating bansa. We will cut red tape dramatically and implement stable economic policies. We will level the playing field for investors and make government an enabler, not a hindrance, to business. Sa ganitong paraan lamang natin mapupunan ang kakulangan ng trabaho para sa ating mga mamamayan.
Layunin nating paramihin ang trabaho dito sa ating bansa upang hindi na kailanganin ang mangibang-bansa para makahanap ng trabaho. Ngunit habang ito ay hindi pa natin naaabot, inaatasan ko ang mga kawani ng DFA, POEA, OWWA at iba pang mga kinauukulang ahensiya na mas lalo pang paigtingin ang pagtugon sa mga hinaing at pangangailangan ng ating mga overseas Filipino workers...
Ang sinumang nagkamali ay kailangang humarap sa hustisya. Hindi maaaring patuloy ang kalakaran ng walang pananagutan at tuloy na pang-aapi.
My government will be sincere in dealing with all the peoples of Mindanao. We are committed to a peaceful and just settlement of conflicts, inclusive of the interests of all – may they be Lumads, Bangsamoro or Christian.
We will be a predictable and consistent place for investment, a nation where everyone will say, “it all works.”
Walang lamangan, walang padrino at walang pagnanakaw. Walang wang-wang, walang counterflow, walang tong. Panahon na upang tayo ay muling magkawang-gawa.
Nandito tayo ngayon dahil sama-sama tayong nanindigan at nagtiwala na may pag-asa.
The people who are behind us dared to dream. Today, the dream starts to become a reality."
Benigno Aquino III began his presidency on June 30, 2010, the fifteenth President of the Philippines. He is a bachelor and the son of former Philippines president Corazon C. Aquino.